SRI SRI PREMA-VIVARTA: CHAPTER SEVENTEEN

Different Practices for
Different Devotees

 

ara dine sri-svarupa raghunathe kaya
"tomare nigudha kichhu kahiba nischaya" [1]

ara dine–Another day, sri-svarupa–Sri Svarup kaya–said, raghunathe–to Raghunath, "kahiba nischaya–"I will explain kichhu–something nigudha–confidential tomare–to you. [1]

Another day, Svarup said to Raghunath, "I will explain something confidential to you.

 

Dharma without devotion is simply deception
(bhajana-vihina-dharma kevala kaitava)

ye varnete janma yara ye asrame sthiti
tat-tad-dharme deha-yatra ei suddha niti [2]

deha-yatra–Maintaining the body tat-tad-dharme–according to the duties ye varnete–of the class yara janma–of one's birth [and] ye asrame–the order [in which one is] sthiti–situated [is] ei suddha niti–the proper conduct. [2]

"Maintaining the body according to the duties of the class in which one is born and the order in which one is situated is the proper conduct.

ei-mate deha-yatra nirvaha kariya
nirantara krsna bhaje ekanta ha-iya [3]
sei se subodha, sudharmika, suvaisnava
bhajana-vihina-dharma kevala kaitava [4]

sei se–Those who deha-yatra nirvaha kariya–maintain the body ei-mate–in this way [and] nirantara–always ekanta ha-iya–sincerely bhaje–serve krsna–Krishna [are] subodha–truly wise [and] sudharmika–truly religious; [they are] suvaisnava–true devotees. bhajana-vihina-dharma–Religion (varnasram-dharma) without devotion, [however, is] kevala–simply kaitava–deception. [3–4]

"Those who maintain the body in this way and always sincerely serve Krishna, are truly wise, religious, and devoted. Dharma without devotion, however, is simply deception.

krsna nahi bhaje, kare dharma-acharana
adhah-pathe yaya tara manava-jivana [5]

manava-jivana–The human life tara–of those who dharma-acharana kare–practise dharma [but] bhaje nahi–do not serve krsna–Krishna adhah-pathe yaya–is ruined. [5]

"The human life of those who practise dharma but do not serve Krishna is ruined.

grhi, brahmachari, vanaprastha va sannyasi
krsna-bhakti-sunya asambhasya diva-nisi [6]

grhi–Householders, brahmachari–students, vanaprastha–retired householders, va–or sannyasi–renunciants [who are] krsna-bhakti-sunya–devoid of devotion to Krishna asambhasya–should not be mixed with, diva-nisi–day [or] night. [6]

"Do not mix, day or night, with householders, students, retired householders, or renunciants who are devoid of devotion to Krishna.

 

Acquiring knowledge of the soul's relationship with the Lord and practising proper renunciation (sambandha-jnana-labha o yukta-vairagya-asraya)

sakalei karibena yukta-vairagya-asraya
krsna bhajibena bujhi' sambandha nischaya [7]

sakalei–Everyone yukta-vairagya-asraya karibena–should practise proper renunciation [and] bhajibena–serve krsna–Krishna, bujhi'–understanding nischaya–clearly [their] sambandha–relationship with [Him]. [7]

"Everyone should practise proper renunciation and serve Krishna with a clear understanding of their relationship with Him.

sambandha-nirnaye haya alambana bodha
suddha-alambana haile haya premera prabodha [8]

sambandha-nirnaye–By understanding that relationship, [its] alambana–object (the Lord) bodha haya–is realised, [and] suddha-alambana haile–when this proper object is realised, haya–there is prabodha–an awakening premera–of divine love. [8]

"By understanding that relationship, its object (the Lord) is realised, and when this proper object is realised, divine love awakens.

preme krsna bhaje sei bapera thakura
prema-sunya jiva kevala chhanchera kukura [9]

sei bhaje–Souls who serve krsna–Krishna preme–with love [are] bapera thakura–worshippable to their own fathers, [but] jiva–souls prema-sunya–devoid of divine love [are] kevala–merely chhanchera kukura–toy dogs. [9]

"Souls who serve Krishna with love are worshippable, even to their own fathers, but souls devoid of divine love are no better than toy dogs.

krsna-bhakti achhe yara vaisnava se jana
grha chhadi' bhiksa kare, na kare bhajana
vaisnava baliya tare na kara ganana [10]

se jana yara achhe–Those who have krsna-bhakti–devotion to Krishna [are] vaisnava–devotees. ganana kara na–Do not consider tare–someone who chhadi'–gives up [their] grha–home [and] bhiksa kare–begs [but] bhajana kare na–does not serve, baliya–to be vaisnava–a devotee. [10]

"Those who have devotion to Krishna are Vaisnavas. Do not consider someone who gives up their home and begs but does not serve Krishna to be a Vaisnava.

anya deva-nirmalyadi na kara grahana
karma-kande kabhu na manibe nimantrana [11]

grahana kara na–Do not accept anya deva-nirmalyadi–the remnants of other gods, [and] kabhu na–never manibe–accept nimantrana–invitations karma-kande–to sacrifices performed for worldly gain. [11]

"Do not accept the remnants of other gods, and never accept invitations to sacrifices performed for worldly gain.

 

The practices of householder Vaisnavas and Vaisnavas who have renounced household life (grhi o grha-tyagi-vaisnavera achara)

grhi grha-tyagi bhede vaisnava-vichara
dunhe bhakti-adhikari prthak achara [12]

[There are] bhede vaisnava-vichara–different types of devotees: grhi–householders [and] grha-tyagi–those who have renounced household life. dunhe–Both [are] bhakti-adhikari–qualified for devotion, [but their] achara–practices [are] prthak–different. [12]

"There are two types of Vaisnavas: householders and renunciants. Both are qualified for devotion, but their practices are different.

duhara chahiye yukta-vairagya vidhana
sujnana, subhakti dunhara sama-parimana [13]

chahiye–The requirement dunhara–of both [is] vidhana–the practice yukta-vairagya–of proper renunciation. dunhara–Their sujnana–pure knowledge [and] subhakti–pure devotion [are] sama-parimana–of equal measure. [13]

"Both are required to practise proper renunciation, and in terms of pure knowledge and pure devotion, they are equal.

 

The duties of householder devotees (grhastha-vaisnava krtya)

grhastha-vaisnava sada sva-dharme arjibe
atithyadi seva yatha-sadhya acharibe [14]

grhastha-vaisnava–Householder devotees [should] sada–always arjibe–earn [their living] sva-dharme–according to their social duty (their varna and asram), [and] acharibe–practise seva–serving atithyadi–guests and others yatha-sadhya–to the best of [their] ability. [14]

"Householder devotees should always earn their living according to their social duty, and they should serve guests and others to the best of their ability.

vaidha-patni sahavase nahe bhakti hani
sarsapa sutaila vyavahare nahi dosa mani [15]

sahavase–Living with vaidha-patni–a lawful wife nahe–is not hani–a harm bhakti–to devotion, [and] mani nahi–I do not consider vyavahare–using sarsapa sutaila–refined mustard oil dosa–a fault. [15]

"Living with a lawful wife is not harmful to devotion, and I do not consider using mustard oil to be a fault.

dadhi dugdha smarta-upacharita amisa
yukta-vairagira haya grahane niramisa [16]

dadhi–Yoghurt [and] dugdha–milk smarta-upacharita–prepared according to the smrti scriptures [are] amisa–non-vegetarian, [but] haya–they become niramisa–vegetarian yukta-vairagira grahane–through acceptance by a proper renunciant. [16]

"Milk and yoghurt prepared according to smarta regulations are non-vegetarian, but they become vegetarian when they are accepted by proper renunciants.

grhastha-vaisnava sada namaparadha rakhi' dure
anukulya laya, pratikulya tyaga kare [17]

grhastha-vaisnava–Householder devotees sada–always dure rakhi'–avoid namaparadha–offences to the Name, laya–accept anukulya–the favourable, [and] tyaga kare–reject pratikulya–the unfavourable. [17]

"Householder devotees always avoid offences to the Name, accept the favourable, and reject the unfavourable.

aikantika namasraya tahara mahima
grhastha vaisnavera nahi mahatmyera sima [18]

aikantika–Sincerely namasraya–taking shelter of the Name [is] tahara–their mahima–glory. nahi–There is no sima–limit mahatmyera–to the glories grhastha vaisnavera–of householder devotees. [18]

"Sincerely taking shelter of the Name is a householder's glory. The glories of householder devotees have no end.

para-himsa tyaga, para-upakare rata
sarva-bhute daya grhira ei-matra vrata [19]

grhira–The householder's ei-matra–only vrata–duty [is] tyaga–to avoid para-himsa–envy, para-upakare rata–engage in helping others, [and] sarva-bhute daya–be compassionate to all beings. [19]

"The householder's only duty is to avoid envy, help others, and be compassionate to all beings.

 

The duties of renounced devotees who have given up household life (grha-tyagi va vairagi vaisnavera krtya)

vairagi vaisnava prana-vrtti angikari'
asanchaya stri-sambhasana-sunya, bhaje hari [20]

vairagi vaisnava–Renounced devotees bhaje–serve hari–the Lord, angikari'–accept prana-vrtti–the necessities for life, asanchaya–do not accumulate [wealth, and] stri-sambhasana-sunya–do not converse with women. [20]

"Renounced devotees serve the Lord, accept the necessities for life, do not accumulate wealth, and do not converse with women.

ei-rupa achara-bhede sakala vaisnava
krsna bhaji' paya krsnera aprakrta vaibhava [21]

ei-rupa–In this way, achara-bhede–according to different practices, sakala–all vaisnava–devotees bhaji'–serve krsna–Krishna [and] paya–realise aprakrta vaibhava–the divine glory krsnera–of Krishna. [21]

"In this way, according to different practices, all devotees serve Krishna and realise His divine glory.

 

Vaisnavas are not deceitful (vaisnavera kutinati nai)

grhi ha-uka tyagi ha-uka bhakte bheda nai
bheda kaile kumbhipaka narakete yai [22]

nai–There is no bheda–difference bhakte–between devotees— ha-uka–be they grhi–householders [or] ha-uka–be they tyagi–renunciants. bheda kaile–If someone makes distinctions [between them,] yai–they go kumbhipaka narakete–to the hell of boiling oil. [22]

"There is no difference between devotees—be they householders or renunciants. If someone makes distinctions between them, they go to the hell of boiling oil.

mula katha, kutinati vyavahara yara
vaisnava-kulete sei mahakulangara [23]

mula katha–The main point [is that] sei yara–those who vyavahara–behave kutinati–deceitfully [are] mahakulangara–a great disgrace vaisnava-kulete–to the society of devotees. [23]

"The main point is that those who behave deceitfully are a great disgrace to the society of Vaisnavas.

sarala bhavete gathi' nija vyavahara
jivane marane krsna-bhakti jani sara [24]

nija vyavahara gathi'–Everyone should behave sarala bhavete–in a sincere manner [and] jani–know krsna-bhakti–devotion to Krishna [to be] sara–all-in-all, jivane–in life [and] marane–death. [24]

"Everyone should behave in a sincere manner and know devotion to Krishna to be all-in-all, in life and death.

kutinati kapatata sathya kutilata
na chhadiya hari bhaje, tara dina gela vrtha [25]

dina–The days tara–of those who bhaje–serve hari–the Lord [but] chhadiya na–do not give up kutinati–deceit, kapatata–duplicity, sathya–dishonesty, [and] kutilata–insincerity gela–pass vrtha–in vain. [25]

"Those who serve the Lord but do not give up deceit, duplicity, dishonesty, and insincerity pass their days in vain.

sei saba bhagavata kadartha kariya
indriya charana bule prakrti bhulaiya [26]

sei saba–They kadartha kariya–distort the meaning bhagavata–of Srimad Bhagavatam, [and] bule–roam about charana–enjoying indriya–the senses [and] bhulaiya–seducing prakrti–women. [26]

"They distort the meaning of Srimad Bhagavatam and roam about enjoying the senses and seducing women.

 

A verse from Srimad Bhagavatam, 10.33.36 (bhagavata-sloka yatha)

anugrahaya bhaktanam manusam deham asritah
bhajate tadrsih krida yah srutva tat-paro bhavet [27]

anugrahaya–To bestow mercy bhaktanam–upon [His] devotees, asritah–Krishna assumes manusam deham–a human-like form [and] bhajate–manifests krida–Pastimes. srutva–Hearing tadrsih yah–about them, bhavet–souls become tat-paro–devoted to Him. [27]

"'To bestow mercy upon His devotees, Krishna assumes a human-like form and manifests His Pastimes. Those who hear about these Pastimes become devoted to Krishna.'

lampata papistha apanake krsna mani'
krsna-lila anukrti kare dharma-hani [28]

lampata papistha–Lewd sinners mani'–consider apanake–themselves krsna–Krishna, anukrti kare–imitate krsna-lila–Krishna's Pastimes, [and] dharma-hani–desecrate religious principles. [28]

"Lewd sinners consider themselves Krishna, imitate Krishna's Pastimes, and desecrate dharma.

 

A pure devotee's service to Radha and Krishna
(suddha-bhaktera radha-krsnera seva)

suddha-bhakta bhakta-bhave chit-svarupa hana
vraje radha-krsna seve sakhi-bhava lana [29]

suddha-bhakta–Pure devotees hana–attain [their] chit-svarupa–spiritual form bhakta-bhave–as a devotee [and] seve–serve radha-krsna–Radha and Krishna vraje–in Vraja lana–with sakhi-bhava–the mood of a sakhi. [29]

"Pure devotees attain their spiritual devotee form and serve Radha and Krishna in Vraja in the mood of a sakhi.

krsna-bhave tat-para haya ye pamara
kumbhipaka prapta haya maranera para [30]

ye pamara–Fools who krsna-bhave tat-para haya–impersonate Krishna prapta haya–go kumbhipaka–to the hell of boiling oil maranera para–after death. [30]

"Fools who impersonate Krishna go to the hell of boiling oil after death.

 

Confidential devotion exists within the heart—not the body
(antaranga bhakti dehe nahe, atmaya)

antaranga bhakti mane, dehe kichhu naya
kutinati bale mudha acharana haya [31]

antaranga–Confidential bhakti–devotion [is] mane–in the heart. kichhu naya–There is nothing dehe–within the body, [but] mudha–fools kutinati bale–deceitfully acharana haya–imitate [it]. [31]

"Confidential devotion is in the heart, not the body, but fools deceitfully imitate it.

sei saba asat-sanga dure parihari'
krsna bhaje suddha-bhakta siddha-deha dhari' [32]

dure parihari'–Avoiding sei saba–all such asat-sanga–bad association, suddha-bhakta–pure devotees bhaje–serve krsna–Krishna siddha-deha dhari'–with [their] spiritual bodies. [32]

"Avoiding all such forms of bad association, pure devotees serve Krishna with their spiritual bodies.

 

Krishna is the only male; everyone else is female
(krsna-i purusa, ara saba prakrti)

bhakta-saba prakrti ha-iya maje krsna-paya
purusa ekale krsna, dasa mahasaya" [33]

bhakta-saba–All devotees ha-iya–are prakrti–female [and] maje–revel krsna-paya–in Krishna's feet. krsna–Krishna ekale–alone [is] purusa–male, dasa mahasaya"–O honourable servant, Das." [33]

"All devotees are female and revel in Krishna's feet. Krishna is the only male, O Das Mahasay."

raghunatha dasa tabe vinita ha-iya
svarupere nivedana kare du'hata judiya [34]

raghunatha dasa–Raghunath Das tabe–then judiya–joined [his] du'hata–two hands [and] vinita ha-iya–humbly nivedana kare–spoke svarupere–to Svarup. [34]

Raghunath Das joined his palms and humbly spoke to Svarup.

"bala prabhu, achhe eka jijnasya amara
sva-dharma-vihina-bhakti sarva-bhakti-sara [35]

"prabhu–"Master, bala–please speak [to me]. amara achhe–I have eka–a jijnasya–question. sva-dharma-vihina-bhakti–Devotion that is free from social duty (the duties of varna and asram) [is] sarva-bhakti-sara–the best of all forms of devotion. [35]

"Master, I have a question. Please answer me. Devotion that is free from social duty is the best of all forms of devotion.

 

Householders and social duty (grhastha o svadharma)

tabe kena grhastha thakibe svadharmete
svadharma chhadiya bhakti pare ta' karite" [36]

tabe–So kena–why [should] grhastha–householders thakibe–remain [engaged] svadharmete–in their social duty? pare–They can chhadiya–leave [their] svadharma–social duty [and] ta' karite–practise bhakti"–devotion." [36]

"So why should householders remain engaged in their social duty when they can give it up and practise devotion?"

svarupa bale, "suna, bhai, ihate ye marma
baliba tomake ami suddha-bhakti dharma [37]

svarupa–Svarup bale–said, "bhai–"Brother, suna–listen! ami–I baliba–will explain tomake–to you dharma–the nature suddha-bhakti–of pure devotion, ye–which [is] marma–the essence ihate–of this. [37]

Svarup replied, "Brother, listen! I will explain to you the nature of pure devotion, which is the essence of this matter.

svadharme jivana-yatra sahaje ghataya
para-dharme kasta achhe, svabhavika naya [38]

[Your] jivana-yatra–livelihood ghataya–is maintained sahaje–easily svadharme–by following [your] own social duty; achhe–there is kasta–difficulty para-dharme–in following someone else's duty, [because] naya–it is not svabhavika–natural. [38]

"Your livelihood is easily maintained by following your own social duty; it is difficult to follow someone else's duty because it is unnatural.

svadharme bhaktira anukula yaha haya
tai bhaktiman jana grahana karaya [39]
yaha yakhana bhakti-pratikula hana yaya
taha tyaga karile ta' suddha-bhakti paya [40]

[When] bhaktiman jana–devotees, svadharme–in the midst of [their] social duty, grahana karaya–accept tai yaha–that which haya–is anukula–favourable bhaktira–to devotion [and] tyaga karile–avoid taha–things yakhana–when yaha–they hana yaya–become bhakti-pratikula–unfavourable to devotion, [then] paya ta'–they attain suddha-bhakti–pure devotion. [39–40]

"When devotees, in the midst their social duty, accept everything that is favourable to devotion and avoid everything that is unfavourable to devotion, then they attain pure devotion.

ataeva svadharma-nistha chitta ha-ite tyaji'
bhakti-nistha karilei sadhu-dharma bhaji' [41]

ataeva–So, [only if] tyaji'–they remove svadharma-nistha–attachment to [their] social duty ha-ite–from [their] chitta–heart [and] bhakti-nistha karilei–develop attachment to devotion [do they] bhaji'–follow sadhu-dharma–the duty of a sadhu. [41]

"So, only if they remove attachment to their social duty from their heart and develop attachment to devotion do they follow the duty of a sadhu.

svadharma-tyagera nama nistha-parihara
niyamagraha dura ha-ile haya vaisnava achara [42]

svadharma-tyagera nama–The phrase, 'renouncing social duty' [means] nistha-parihara–giving up attachment [to it. When] niyamagraha–excessive attachment to rules dura ha-ile–withdraws, vaisnava achara–Vaisnava practice haya–takes place. [42]

"'Renouncing social duty' means giving up attachment to it. When excessive attachment to the rules for social duty withdraws, Vaisnava practice begins.

 

The rule is: remember Krishna, and the prohibition is: do not forget Krishna
(krsna-smrti vidhi; krsna-vismrti nisedha)

nirantara krsna-smrti mula-vidhi bhai
sri-krsna-vismrti yahe nisedha mula tai" [43]

bhai–Brother, nirantara–constant krsna-smrti–remembrance of Krishna [is] mula-vidhi–the fundamental rule, [and] tai yahe–that by which sri-krsna-vismrti–forgetfulness of Sri Krishna [occurs is] mula nisedha"–the fundamental prohibition." [43]

"Brother, constant remembrance of Krishna is the fundamental rule, and forgetfulness of Krishna is the fundamental prohibition."

tabe raghunatha bale, "katha eka ara
ajna haya suni yahe vaisnava-vichara [44]

raghunatha–Raghunath tabe–then bale–said, ["There is] "ara eka katha–another subject. ajna haya–If you allow [me,] suni–I would like to hear [further] yahe vaisnava-vichara–explanation about Vaisnavas. [44]

Raghunath said, "I have another subject to discuss. If you allow me, I would like to hear further explanation about Vaisnavas.

 

The family of the Lord and social duty (sri-achyuta-gotra o svadharma)

sri-achyuta-gotra bali' vaisnava-nirdesa
ihara tatparya kiba, ithe ki visesa" [45]

vaisnava-nirdesa bali'–Devotees are identified as sri-achyuta-gotra–the family of the Lord. kiba–What [is] tatparya–the meaning ihara–of this? ki–What [is] visesa–significant ithe"–in this regard?" [45]

"Vaisnavas are described as the family of the Lord. What is the meaning and significance of this?"

svarupa bale, "grhi, tyagi ubhaye sarvatha
ei gotre adhikari nahika anyatha [46]

svarupa–Svarup bale–said, "ubhaye–Both grhi–householders [and] tyagi–renunciants [are,] sarvatha–in all respects, adhikari–members ei gotre–of this family [and] nahika–no anyatha–other. [46]

Svarup said, "Both householders and renunciants are, in all respects, members of this family and no other.

sri-achyuta-gotre thake suddha-bhakta yata
svadharma-nisthaya kabhu nahi haya rata [47]

yata–All suddha-bhakta–pure devotees thake–live sri-achyuta-gotre–in the family of the Lord [and] kabhu nahi–never svadharma-nisthaya rata haya–become attached to social duty. [47]

"All pure devotees belong to the family of the Lord and never become attached to social duty.

samsarera gotra tyaji' krsna-gotra bhaje
sei nitya-gotra tara yei vaise vraje [48]

tyaji'–They leave behind [their] samsarera gotra–worldly family [and] bhaje–serve krsna-gotra–Krishna's family. tara yei–Those who vaise–reside vraje–in Vraja [are part of] sei–that nitya-gotra–eternal family. [48]

"They give up their worldly families and serve Krishna's family. Those who reside in Vraja are part of that eternal family.

keha va svadehe vaise vraja-gopi hana
keha va aropa-siddha-manase la-iya [49]

keha va–Some vaise–reside svadehe–in [their] own body hana–as vraja-gopi–a gopi of Vraja, [and] keha va–some la-iya–practise aropa-siddha-manase–ascription within their minds. [49]

"Some reside in their spiritual body as Vraja-gopis, and others practise arop-siddha* within their minds. [* See 17.57.]

 

Beginners, practitioners, and experts (pravarta, sadhaka, siddha)

pravarta, sadhaka, siddha—tina ye prakara
bujhite parile bujhi bhakti-dharma-sara [50]

parile–If you can bujhite–understand ye–the tina–three prakara–classes [of devotees]— pravarta–beginners, sadhaka–practitioners, [and] siddha–experts— [then] bujhi–you can understand bhakti-dharma-sara–the essence of devotional practice. [50]

"If you can understand the three classes of devotees—beginners, practitioners, and experts—then you can understand the essence of devotional practice.

'kanisthadhikari' haya 'pravarte' ganana
'madhyamadhikari' 'sadhaka' bhakta mahajana [51]

'kanisthadhikari'–A kanistha adhikari ganana haya–is counted 'pravarte'–as a beginner. 'madhyamadhikari'–A madhyam adhikari [is] 'sadhaka'–a practitioner, bhakta mahajana–a devotee, and a great soul. [51]

"A kanistha adhikari is considered a beginner. A madhyam adhikari is a practitioner, a devotee, and a great soul.

'uttamadhikari' haya 'siddha' mahasaya
hrdaye svadharma-nistha kabhu na karaya [52]

'uttamadhikari'–An uttam adhikari haya–is mahasaya 'siddha'–a worshippable expert, [and] kabhu na–never svadharma-nistha karaya–becomes attached to social duty hrdaye–at heart. [52]

"An uttam adhikari is a worshippable expert and never becomes attached to social duty at heart.

madhyamadhikari ara uttamadhikari
sakale achyuta-gotra dekhaha vichari'" [53]

vichari' dekhaha–Consider sakale–both madhyamadhikari–practitioners ara–and uttamadhikari–experts [to be part] achyuta-gotra"–of the family of the Lord." [53]

"Consider both practitioners and experts to be part of the family of the Lord."

 

Ascription (aropa)

raghunatha bale, "ebe aropa bujhiba
tatparya bujhiya saba sandeha tyajiba" [54]

raghunatha–Raghunath bale–said, "bujhiba–"I wish to understand aropa–ascription ebe–now. bujhiya–By understanding [its] tatparya–significance, tyajiba–I will give up saba–all [my] sandeha–doubts. [54]

Raghunath said, "I now wish to understand ascription. By understanding its significance, I will give up all my doubts.

damodara bale, "suna aropa-sandhana
ihate chahiye bhakti-svarupera jnana [55]

damodara–Damodar bale–said, "suna–"Hear aropa-sandhana–a description of ascription. ihate–In this regard, chahiye–you need jnana–knowledge bhakti-svarupera–of the nature of devotion [itself]. [55]

Damodar said, "Hear now about ascription. To understand it, you need to understand the nature of devotion itself.

 

The three types of Vaisnava devotion (trividha vaisnavi bhakti)

trividha vaisnavi bhakti karaha vichara
(1) 'aropa-siddha', (2) 'sanga-siddha', (3) 'svarupa-siddha' ara [56]

vichara karaha–Consider trividha–the three types vaisnavi bhakti–of Vaisnava devotion: 'aropa-siddha'–'arop-siddha', 'sanga-siddha'–'sanga-siddha', ara–and 'svarupa-siddha'–'svarup-siddha'. [56]

"You should know that there are three types of Vaisnava devotion: arop-siddha, sanga-siddha, and svarup-siddha.

 

(1) Devotion expressed through ascription is for the beginner
(aropa-siddha bhakti—kanisthadhikarira)

aropa-siddhara katha baliba prathame
susthira ha-iya bujha chittera samyame [57]

prathame–First, aropa-siddhara katha baliba–I will explain arop-siddha. susthira ha-iya–Focus [and] bujha–understand [it] chittera samyame–with a controlled mind. [57]

"First, I will explain arop-siddha. Focus and understand it with a controlled mind.

baddha bahirmukha jiva visayi pradhana
jada-sanga-matra kari' kare avasthana [58]

baddha jiva–Conditioned souls [who are] bahirmukha–averse [to the Lord are] visayi pradhana–mostly materialists. avasthana kare–They live [and] sanga-matra kari'–associate only jada–with matter. [58]

"Conditioned souls who are averse to the Lord are mostly materialists and associate only with material things.

jada-sukha jada-duhkha niyata tahara
prakrta samsarga vina kichhu nahi ara [59]

niyata–Constantly, tahara–their [experience] jada-sukha–of material happiness [and] jada-duhkha–material sadness [takes places]. kichhu nahi–They have no samsarga–connection ara–with anything vina–other than prakrta–matter. [59]

"They are constantly engrossed in material happiness and sadness, and have no experience of anything other than matter.

aprakrta bali' kichhu nahi paya jnana
aprakrta-tattva mane nahi paya sthana [60]

kichhu nahi paya–They have no jnana–knowledge bali'–regarding aprakrta–spirit, [and] aprakrta-tattva–spiritual truth paya nahi–finds no sthana–place mane–in [their] hearts. [60]

"They know nothing about spirit, and there is no place for spiritual truth in their hearts.

nije aprakrta vastu tahao na jane
araksita sisu yena sadai ajnane [61]

jane na–They do not know tahao–even that nije–they [are] aprakrta vastu–spiritual beings. yena–Like araksita–uneducated sisu–children, [they] sadai–always [remain] ajnane–in ignorance. [61]

"They do not even know that they are spiritual beings. Like uneducated children, they always remain in ignorance.

kona bhagye kona janme sukrtira phale
sraddhara udaya haya hrdaya-kamale [62]

kona bhagye–By some good fortune, kona janme–in some birth, sukrtira phale–as a result of sukrti (rendering of service knowingly or unknowingly to the Lord or His paraphernalia), sraddhara udaya haya–faith arises hrdaya-kamale–in the lotus of their hearts. [62]

"By some good fortune, in some birth, as a result of sukrti, faith arises in the lotus of their hearts.

prathama sandhane sune, 'ami krsna-dasa'
e samsara haite uddhare kare asa [63]

prathama–At first, sandhane–in the course of their search, sune–they hear, 'ami–'I [am] krsna-dasa'–a servant of Krishna', [and] asa kare–aspire uddhare–to be delivered haite–from e samsara–this world. [63]

"At first, in the course of their search, they hear, 'I am a servant of Krishna', and then they aspire to be delivered from samsara.

 

Worshipping Krishna (krsnarchana)

guru bale, 'suna, vachha, kara krsnarchana'
krsnarchane tabe tara ichchha-sangathana [64]

[Their] guru–Guru bale–says [to them,] 'suna–'Listen! [My] vachha–child, krsnarchana kara'–you should worship Krishna.' tabe–Then tara ichchha-sangathana–they become eager krsnarchane–to worship Krishna. [64]

"Their Guru says to them, 'Listen! My child, you should worship Krishna', and they then become eager to worship Krishna.

krsna ye aprakrta prabhu, ei matra sune
krsna-svarupa aprakrta taha nahi jane [65]

sune–They hear matra–simply ei ye–that krsna–Krishna [is] aprakrta–spiritual [and that He is] prabhu–the Lord, [but] jane nahi–they do not understand taha aprakrta krsna-svarupa–Krishna's spiritual nature. [65]

"They simply hear that Krishna is spiritual and that He is the Lord, but they do not understand Krishna's spiritual nature.

nija chatur-dike yaha kare darasane
tanhi madhye ista yaha bujhi dekha mane [66]

bujhi dekha mane–They understand and regard yaha–everything tanhi madhye–within yaha–what darasane kare–they see nija chatur-dike–in the four directions around them [is] ista–the Lord's. [66]

"They understand that everything they see around them belongs to the Lord.

ista-dravye ista-murtira karaya pujana
ei sthale haya tara aropa-chintana [67]

ista-murtira pujana karaya–They [then] worship the Lord's form ista-dravye–with the Lord's paraphernalia. ei sthale–At this stage, tara aropa-chintana haya–they practise ascription. [67]

"They then worship the Lord's form with the Lord's paraphernalia. At this stage, they practise ascription.

manusya-murati eka kariya gathana
gandha-puspa-dhupa-dipe karaye archana [68]

gathana kariya–They make eka–a manusya-murati–human form [and] archana karaye–worship [Him] gandha-puspa-dhupa-dipe–with fragrances, flowers, incense, and lamps. [68]

"They make a human-like form of the Lord and worship Him with fragrances, flowers, incense, and lamps.

aropa-buddhye bhave saba aprakrta dhana
aropa chintiya kabhu aprakrtapana [69]

aropa-buddhye–By understanding ascription, bhave–they consider [that] saba–everything [is] aprakrta–spiritual dhana–property, [and] aropa chintiya–by practising ascription, [they] kabhu–sometimes aprakrtapana–perceive spiritual reality. [69]

"By understanding ascription, they consider that everything is spiritual property, and by practising ascription, they sometimes perceive spiritual reality.

ihate ye karmarpana aropera sthala
arope kramasah bhakti-tattve paya bala [70]

ye karmarpana–The offering of actions [to the Lord] ihate–in this way [is] aropera sthala–the stage of ascription, [and] arope–through ascription, [souls] kramasah–gradually paya–develop bala–strength bhakti-tattve–in devotion. [70]

"Offering actions to the Lord in this way is the practice of ascription, and through it, souls gradually develop devotional strength.

ei ta' aropa-siddha bhaktira laksana
kanisthadhikarira haya ei samarchana [71]

ei ta'–These [are] laksana–the characteristics bhaktira–of devotion aropa-siddha–expressed through ascription. kanisthadhikarira ei samarchana haya–Beginners perform such worship. [71]

"These are the characteristics of arop-siddha devotion. Beginners perform worship in this way.

 

Worshipping the Deity with realisation (tattva-bodhe sri-murti-puja)

tattvati bujhiya yabe sri-murti pujaya
tabe madhyama adhikara haya ta' udaya [72]

yabe–When pujaya–they worship sri-murti–the Deity bujhiya–understanding tattvati–the Lord's nature, tabe–then madhyama adhikara udaya ta' haya–they rise to the intermediate stage. [72]

"When beginners worship the Deity and come to understand the Lord's nature, they rise to the intermediate stage.

uttamadhikarira aropera nahi sthana
manase aprakrta tattvera paya ta' sandhana [73]

aropera sthana nahi–Ascription has no position uttamadhikarira–for experts: sandhana ta' paya–they perceive aprakrta tattvera–spiritual reality [directly] manase–within [their] hearts. [73]

"Experts do not practise ascription: they directly perceive spiritual reality within their hearts.

premera udaya haya prema-chakse heri'
pranesvara bhaje purva-aropa dura kari' [74]

premera udaya haya–Divine love arises [within them, and] heri'–they [begin to] see prema-chakse–with the eyes of that love. bhaje–They serve pranesvara–the Lord of their heart, [and] dura kari'–give up [their] purva-aropa–previous [practice of] ascription. [74]

"Divine love arises in them, and they begin to see with the eyes of that love. They serve the Lord of their heart and give up their previous practice of ascription.

bhakti svabhavatah nahe hena karmarpane
aropa-siddha bhakti-madhye haya ta' ganane [75]

svabhavatah–By nature, bhakti–devotion nahe–is not hena–like karmarpane–offering actions. [Still,] aropa-siddha–ascription haya–is ta' ganane–counted bhakti-madhye–within devotion. [75]

"By nature, devotion is not the same as offering actions. Still, ascription is considered a type of devotion.

 

(1) The key principle of ascription (aropa-siddhara mula tattva)

aropa-siddhara eka mula-tattva ei
jada-vastu jada-karma bhakti-bhave la-i [76]

ei eka–The mula-tattva–key principle aropa-siddhara–within ascription [is] la-i–using jada-vastu–material objects [and] jada-karma–material actions bhakti-bhave–in a devotional way. [76]

"The key principle within ascription is to use material objects and actions in a devotional way.

jada-vastu, jada-karma-madhye ghrnya yaha
arpaneo bhakti nahi haya kabhu taha [77]

arpaneo–By offering [the Lord], however, taha yaha–that which [is] ghrnya–objectionable jada-karma-madhye–amongst material actions [and] jada-vastu–material objects, bhakti–devotion kabhu nahi–never haya–comes about. [77]

"Offering the Lord objectionable material objects and actions, however, is never devotion.

upadeya ista bali' karmarpana kare
'aropa-siddha bhakti' bali' baliba tahare [78]

karmarpana kare–Offering actions [to the Lord] upadeya ista bali'–considering [them] pleasing to the Lord— tahare–that bali' baliba–I will consider to be 'aropa-siddha bhakti'–devotion expressed through ascription. [78]

"I consider offering the Lord actions that are pleasing to Him to be arop-siddha devotion.

mayavade archananga aropa-laksana
bhaktivade svarupa-siddha bhaktira darsana [79]

mayavade–According to illusionist principles, archananga–the practice of worship [has] aropa-laksana–the characteristics of ascription, [but] bhaktivade–according to devotional principles, [worship is also] darsana–seen svarupa-siddha bhaktira–[as a type] of self-manifest devotion. [79]

"According to illusionist principles, worshipping the Lord is a form of ascription, but according to devotional principles, it is also seen as a type of self-manifest* devotion.
[* See 17.83.]

 

(2) Devotion expressed as associated qualities (sanga-siddha bhakti)

ebe suna, 'sanga-siddha bhakti' yei rupa
suddha-jnana suvairagya sanga-siddhara svarupa [80]

ebe–Now suna–hear yei rupa–about 'sanga-siddha bhakti'–devotion expressed as associated qualities. suddha-jnana–Pure knowledge [and] suvairagya–proper renunciation [are] svarupa–the forms sanga-siddhara–of sanga-siddha [devotion]. [80]

"Now hear about sanga-siddha devotion. Pure knowledge and proper renunciation are themselves sanga-siddha devotion.

yatha bhakti tatha yukta-vairagya suddha-jnana
sahacharye sanga-siddha bujhaha sandhana [81]

yatha tatha–Wherever [there is] bhakti–devotion, [there is] suddha-jnana–pure knowledge [and] yukta-vairagya–proper renunciation. sahacharye–With the help [of this principle], bujhaha–understand sandhana–the nature sanga-siddha–of sanga-siddha [devotion]. [81]

"Wherever there is devotion, there is pure knowledge and proper renunciation. With this principle, understand the nature of sanga-siddha devotion.

dainya daya sahisnuta bhakti-sahachara
sanga-siddha-bhakti-anga jana atahpara [82]

dainya–Humility, daya–compassion, [and] sahisnuta–tolerance, bhakti-sahachara–accompany devotion. atahpara–From now on, jana–you know sanga-siddha-bhakti-anga–the limbs of sanga-siddha devotion. [82]

"Humility, compassion, and tolerance also accompany devotion. You now know the limbs of sanga-siddha devotion.

 

(3) Self-manifest devotion (svarupa-siddha bhakti)

saksat bhaktira karya yahate nischaya
'svarupa-siddha bhakti'ra kriya tahai haya [83]

tahai yahate–That by which karya–an act saksat bhaktira–of devotion itself haya–takes place [is] nischaya–certainly kriya–an act 'svarupa-siddha bhakti'ra–of self-manifest devotion. [83]

"An act of svarup-siddha devotion is an act of devotion itself.

sravana-kirtana-adi nava-vidha bhajana
svarupa-siddha bhakti bali' tan-nama-kirtana [84]

nava-vidha bhajana–The nine types of service— sravana-kirtana-adi–hearing, chanting, remembering, attending, worshipping, praying, serving, befriending, and surrendering— [are] bali' tan-nama-kirtana–renowned by the name svarupa-siddha bhakti–'svarup-siddha devotion'. [84]

"The nine types of service—hearing, chanting, and so on—are known as svarup-siddha devotion.

krsnete saksat tahadera mukhya-gati
aropa-siddha, sanga-siddhara gauna-bhave sthiti [85]

tahadera–Their mukhya-gati–main focus [is] krsnete saksat–Krishna Himself, [and] aropa-siddha–arop-siddha [devotion and] sanga-siddhara–sanga-siddha [devotion are] sthiti–situated [within them] gauna-bhave–secondarily. [85]

"The main focus of these practices is Krishna Himself, and arop-siddha and sanga-siddha devotion are present within them secondarily.

svatah-siddha atma-vrtti suddha-bhakti sara
baddha-jive mano-vrtte udaya tahara [86]
krsnonmukha jada-dehe tahara vistrti
e jagate bhakti-devira ei-rupa sthiti [87]

sara–The essence svatah-siddha atma-vrtti–of the natural propensity of the soul [is] suddha-bhakti–pure devotion. tahara udaya–It arises mano-vrtte–in the mental functioning baddha-jive–of a conditioned soul [and] tahara vistrti–expands [as] krsnonmukha–inclination towards Krishna jada-dehe–in [their] material body. bhakti-devira sthiti–The goddess of devotion exists e jagate–in this world ei-rupa–in this way. [86–87]

"The essence of the natural propensity of the soul is pure devotion. It arises in the mind of a conditioned soul and expands as inclination towards Krishna within their material body. This is how the goddess of devotion exists in this world.

 

The three functions of the three types of devotion
(trividha bhaktir trividha kriya)

sei bhakti 'svarupa-siddha' saksat kriya yatha
'sanga-siddha' sahachara sahaye sarvatha [88]

yatha–Where [there is] kriya–an act [of devotion] saksat–itself, sei–such bhakti–devotion [is] 'svarupa-siddha'–svarup-siddha [devotion]. 'sanga-siddha'–Sanga-siddha [devotion] sahaye–assists [and] sahachara–accompanies [svarup-siddha devotion] sarvatha–everywhere. [88]

"An act of devotion itself is svarup-siddha devotion. Sanga-siddha devotion assists and accompanies svarup-siddha devotion everywhere.

'aropa-siddha' haya yatha prakrta vastu kriya
aprakrta bhave sadhe prakrta nasiya" [89]

'aropa-siddha'–Arop-siddha devotion haya–takes place yatha–where [there are] prakrta–material vastu–objects [and] kriya–actions. [When] sadhe–practised aprakrta bhave–in a spiritual manner, [it] nasiya–conquers prakrta"–material nature." [89]

"Arop-siddha devotion is practised in connection with material objects and actions. When practised with realisation of spirit, it conquers material nature."

svarupera upadese, bujhe raghunatha
piriti-svarupa-tattva jagaiyera satha [90]

upadese–Through the advice svarupera–of Svarup, raghunatha–Raghunath bujhe–understood piriti-svarupa-tattva–the nature of love jagaiyera satha–in the company of Jagai. [90]

Through Svarup's advice, Raghunath understood the nature of love in the company of Jagai.

 

⇐ CHAPTER SIXTEEN:
"What is Love?"

CHAPTER EIGHTEEN:
"Sri Ekadasi" ⇒

 

CONTENTS:

Translator's Note
Introduction
In Praise of Sri Sri Prema-vivarta
Sri Sri Prema-vivarta:
1 Invocation of Auspiciousness
2 The Composition of this Book
3 First Obeisances
4 Gaura's Greatness
5 Transformations of Ecstasy in Service
6 The Journey of the Soul
7 The Name is for Everyone
8 Give up Deceit
9 Proper Renunciation
10 Caste and Class
11 The Light of Nabadwip
12 Glories of the Vaisnavas
13 Eagerness to see Sri Gaura
14 Contradictory Transformations
15 Morning Pastimes in Nabadwip
16 What is Love?
17 Different Practices for Different Devotees
18 Sri Ekadasi
19 A Collection of Hidden Truths about the Name
20 The Glories of the Name
+ The Ten Offences to the Holy Name
+ Glossary

"HUMILITY, TOLERANCE, GIVING HONOUR TO OTHERS | HUMILITY, TOLERANCE, GIVING HONOUR TO OTHERS"