Sri Sri Brahma-samhita | SCSMath International
 

SRI BRAHMA-SAMHITA


Quintessence of Reality the Beautiful

 

Verse 1

isvarah paramah krsnah saccidananda-vigrahah
anadir adir govinda sarvva-karana-karanam [1]

Illumination

Translation: The Supreme Lord, the Embodiment of Truth, Consciousness and Joy, is Govinda Krishna. He is beginningless, the Origin of all that be, and the Cause of all causes. [1]

Purport: With His Personal Eternal Name, Eternal Form, Eternal Qualities and Eternal Pastimes, Krishna alone shines resplendent above all other entities as the Supreme. The Name 'Krishna' is His Eternal Name that proclaims Him to be the Supreme Existence by His characteristic of attracting the Love of all beings. His Form of concentrated Truth (sat), Consciousness (cit) and Joy (ananda), of two-armed humanlike feature and charming heavenly dark blue (Syamasundar) hue, holding the flute (Muralldhar), is His Personal Eternal Character.

By the Power of His own inconceivable Potency, despite His Almighty Majestic Nature, in His charming medium-sized Form He attracts all that be; in that Eternal Form, His Nature as the Autocrat possessing miraculous Transcendental Qualities, Senses, etc., is unique with all-embracing harmony. Truth, Immortal Consciousness and Divine Ecstasy have their full glory in Him, with absolute concentrated intensity.

Paramatman the Omnipresent Supersoul, the Almighty God or Isvara—Visnu the Preserver—is but the Portion of His Intrinsic Self, manifest within the mundane world. Therefore Krishna is the one and only Supreme Godhead or Paramesvara (isvarah paramah krsnah). Although His Infinite Transcendental Senses and Qualities are all clearly distinct from one another, by His inconceivable Potency they are perfectly situated, eternally appearing in the one absolutely charming, unrivalled Transcendental Form. That Divine Form is the Self of Krishna, and the Self of Krishna is that Divine Form. His Divine Form is the Entity of Absolute Concentrated Intensity of Being, Cognizance and Ecstasy; and so the attributeless, formless Spirit or Brahman, the unconcentrated principle of being, cognizance and bliss, is merely the Bodily effulgence of that Entity of Absolute Concentrated Intensity.

The Divine Intrinsic Form of Krishna is in itself without origin, and it is the Origin of Brahman and Paramatman. That Selfsame Krishna, who is served by Sri, the Original Goddess of Fortune, is Govinda—who may be viewed according to His Pastimes as Gopati, the Lord of the cows; Gopapati, the Lord of the cowherds; Gopipati, the Lord of the cowherd damsels; Gokulapati, the Lord of the Divine Village on Earth where cows flourish; and Golokapati, the Lord of the Divine Abode of cows. As both Predominator and Predominated, He is the Cause of all causes: incited by the glance of His Fractional Predominative Descent (Purusavatara) Form of Paramatman, His predominated inferior potency creates the material world. The unlimited individual souls or jivas are the manifest marginal potency rays of effulgence emanating from that Paramatman.

This Holy Book establishes the supremacy of Lord Krishna, and thus the auspicious invocation to the Book is accomplished by chanting His Name. [1]

 

Verse 2

sahasra-patra-kamalam gokulakhyam mahat-padam
tat-karnikara-tad-dhama tad-anantamsa-sambhavam [2]

Translation: (In this verse, the Transcendental Abode [Dhama] of Gokula, the Seat of the Pastimes of Divinely playful Sri Krishna is being described.) The Superexcellent Abode of Krishna is Gokula; it is eternally manifest through a Portion of the Infinite (Ananta). This Abode takes the shape of a unique Divine Lotus Flower possessing thousands of petals, the core of which is Krishna's own home. [2]

Purport: Gokula, which is identical with Goloka, is not created or mundane. Krishna's Infinite Potency is ever-expanding, and Krishna's Divine Alter Ego, Baladeva, is the reservoir of that Potency. The Infinite Aspect of the Transcendental Entity of Baladeva is twofold, encompassing both Transcendence and mundanity. One quadrant of the Lord's majesty is mundane infinity (ekapada-vibhuti), and that will be discussed in the appropriate place. The Transcendent Infinity is the Lord's triquadrantal Majesty (tripada-vibhuti), or the place of no lamentation, death or apprehension; and that Domain is by nature effulgent in the sense that it is the Transcendental Kingdom. That Kingdom is the manifest Majesty of the Almighty, the Great Vaikuntha or the Unlimited Transcendental Spiritual World, Paravyoma.

Beyond the purview of material nature, on the far shore of the River of Passivity, Viraja, that Domain presides in all its Glory, eternally surrounded by the spiritual effulgence of Brahman. The upper region of that Infinite Divine Majesty is the Abode of absolute sweetness and charm—Gokula or Goloka, which is the Ultimate Portion of the splendour of the Spiritual World eternally manifest in its beauty to the extreme. This is referred to by some authorities as the Abode of Maha-Narayana, the Great Narayana, or Mula-Narayana, the Original Narayana. Thus Gokula, identical with Goloka, is the Superexcellent Abode. That one Holy Abode is resplendent as Goloka and Gokula according to their different locations, upper and lower respectively.

Srimat Sanatana Goswaml has stated in his Sri Brhad-Bhagavatamrtam, which embodies the essence of all Holy Scriptures: yatha kridati tad bhumau goloke 'pi tathaiva sah adha-urddhvataya bhedo 'nayoh kalpate kevalam. The meaning is that in Gokula, which is manifest in this material world, Krishna sports in His Divine Pastimes in exactly the same way as He does in Goloka. There is no difference between Goloka and Gokula except that Goloka is situated at the topmost region of the Spiritual Plane, and that selfsame place of Krishna's Pastimes is manifest as Gokula in this world.

Sri Jiva Goswaml has also elucidated in his Sat-sandarbha, goloka-nirupanam; vrndavanadinam nitya-krsna-dhama-tvam; goloka-vrndavanayor ekatvah ca: Although Goloka and Gokula are identical, by dint of Krishna's inconceivable Potency Goloka is the topmost plane of the Transcendental World while Gokula, situated in Mathura-mandala or Mathura province, is revealed within the insignificant quadrant of the Lord's majesty that issues forth from His deluding Maya potency as the mundane world. It lies beyond the faculty of the jiva's puny intellect to conceive how the Divine Abode, despite being the vast triquadrantal Majesty of God, comes to be accommodated in the nether-regions of the quadrant of the mundane majesty; and it is demonstrative of the greatness of Krishna's inconceivable Potency.

The Entity of Gokula is the Divine Abode, immeasurable and unlimited in any way by material time, space or circumstances despite being manifest in the material world; Gokula remains self-effulgent, ever unrestricted as Supreme Unlimited Reality (Parama-Vaikuntha-tattva). Yet the conditioned souls, due to their absorption in materialism, cannot resist dragging even Gokula to the level of their mundane senses and intellect. Through their individual defective senses and intelligence they see even the Divine Abode of Gokula in a mundane way, just as the shortsighted observer considers that the sun is covered by a cloud when in fact it is only his eyes that are covered.

Only one who by great fortune has had his relationship with mundanity completely dissipated can see Goloka in Gokula and Gokula in Goloka. The enlightenment (jnana) attained from the bliss-consciousness of the soul, through its own assiduous discernment of non-reality from reality, has never been known to catch a glimpse of the area of Vaikuntha. That realm is situated above the unconcentrated truth, consciousness and bliss of the elementary Brahman or nondifferentiative Absolute; thus, there is no chance of having a divine vision of Goloka or Gokula by such jnana or self-exertive attempts at enlightenment. This is so because the cultivators of jnana, the liberationists, search for the reality while wholly depending upon their own finer perceptions, but they ignore the quest for the Grace of Krishna, who is full of inconceivable Potencies. Hence the liberationists' attempt for monistic self-realization is futile in the matter of reaching Goloka-Vrndavana.

As a limb of the exploitational or karmma attempt, the meditational or yoga attempt is similarly impotent in drawing the Lord's Grace; therefore it cannot have any success in the quest for the Plane of Transcendental Dynamism beyond the 'oneness' of Brahman. Only those who adopt Pure Devotion or Suddha-Bhakti can attain the Grace of Krishna, the Lord of inconceivable Potencies; and only by Krishna's Grace is one's relativity with the mundane illusory nature dispelled and the fortune of seeing Gokula bom.

In this regard there are two basic types of perfection in Devotion or Bhakti-siddhis, namely, perfection of one's intrinsic divine self during his sojourn in this world or svarupa-siddhi, and perfection upon departure from the mortal world or vastu-siddhi. In svarupa-siddhi, Goloka is seen in Gokula, and in vastu-siddhi Gokula is seen in Goloka—this is a profound mystery.

With the attainment of Prema or Divine Love, svarupa-siddhi is attained; after that, vastu-siddhi occurs when both the gross and subtle illusory coverings of the conditioned soul are removed by Krishna's sweet will. In any case, until one attains perfection in Devotion or Bhakti-siddhi, he will see Gokula as separate from his conception of Goloka.

With myriads of petals, the unique Transcendental Seat of unending marvels is Gokula, the Eternal Divine Abode of Krishna. [2]

 

Verse 3

karnikaram mahad-yantram sat-konam vajra-kilakam
sadanga-satpadi-sthanam prakrtya purusena ca
premananda-mahananda-rasenavasthitam hi yat
jyotirupena manuna kama-bijena sangatam [3]

Translation: The centre of the Divine Lotus is the core—Krishna's Residence. It is presided over by the Predominated and Predominating Moiety. It is mapped as a hexagonal Mystic Symbol. Like a diamond, the Effulgent Supreme Entity of Krishna, the Fountainhead of all Divine Potencies, presides as the Central Pivot. The Great Mantra of eighteen syllables, which is formed of six integral parts, is manifest as a hexagonal Place with sixfold divisions. [3]

Purport: Krishna's Lila or Pastimes are of two basic types, either manifest or unmanifest. The Pastimes of Vrndavana that may be revealed to the vision of humans is manifest Krishna-lila, whereas that which remains invisible to the eye is unmanifest Krishna-lila. In Goloka, the unmanifest Lila is ever manifest, and in Gokula the manifest Lila is manifest to the worldly eye when Krishna wills it.

Srila Jiva Goswami has stated in his Krishna-sandarbha, aprakata-lilatah prasutih prakata-lilayam abhivyaktih: “Manifest Lila is the revelation of unmanifest Lila.” It is also further said in Krishna-sandarbha, sri-vrndavanasya prakasa-viseso golokatvam; tatra pra-pancika-loka-prakata-lilavakasatvenavabhasamanam prakaso goloka iti samarthaniyam. The meaning is that any 'interval' which is found in Krishna's manifest Lila in the illusory world is filled by those Pastimes that have their subtle presence in the background in an unmanifest way; they are the Pastimes of Goloka or Goloka-lila.

So all these points are harmonized by Srila Rupa Goswami in his Laghu-Bhagavatamrtam: yat tu goloka-nama syat tac ca gokula-vaibhavam; tadatmya-vaibhavatvan ca tasya tan mahimonnateh—Goloka is the Transcendental manifestation of the higher Transcendental Glories of Gokula. So Goloka is simply the selfsame manifestation of the majesty of Gokula.

Although each and every Pastime of Krishna is not manifest in Gokula, all His Pastimes are eternally manifest in Goloka. The revelation to the conditioned souls of the unmanifest Lila of Goloka—Goloka being the selfsame majestic manifestation of Gokula—is of two types, namely through worship by Mantra (Mantropasanamayi) and by pure spontaneity (Svarasiki). Sri Jiva Goswami has explained in his writings that any one of the various locations and associated circumstances of the Divine Pastimes have their constant localized existence, and so may be meditated upon by the appropriate Mantra. The meditational revelation of Goloka that arises from the constant localized Mantra meditation upon a location corresponding to a singular Pastime is Mantropasanamayi-lila. But those Pastimes that pervade many localities with manifold Divine Sports and Revelries are full of variegated spontaneity, and thus they are Svarasiki; that is, they are revealed to the devotees whose transcendental spontaneity has matured.

Both meanings are in this verse. Firstly, in the Pastimes indicated in eighteen syllables, the bases of the Mantra are delegated their appropriate localities in order that each one manifest a particular Pastime of Krishna: klim krsnaya govindaya gopijana-vallabhaya svaha. This Mantra is said to be formed of six integral parts of six metric bases, which are (1) Krishnaya (2) Govindaya (3) Gopijana (4) Vallabhaya (5) Sva and (6) Ha. The formation of the Mantra is thus shown to be the consecutive placement of these six limbs.

The Great Hexagonal Mystic Symbol (or Circle of the Lord's Dominion, mahad-yantra) is explained as follows: the Seed (Bija), the Impelling Principle or Desire-seed (Kama-bija)—Klim—is the Central Pivot within the Symbol. By concentrating one's thoughts upon the Transcendental Truth with the help of such a Formula, one can attain perception of the Truth as Chandradhvaja (Lord Siva) did.

The Teachings of Gautamiya Tantra state, sva-sabdena ca ksetrajno heti cit-prakrtih para: The word Sva indicates ksetrajna or the soul, and Ha indicates the higher Transcendental Nature. According to Sri-Haribhakti-vilasa, uttarad govindayety asmat surabhim go-jatim; tad uttarad gopijanety asmat vidyas caturddasa, tad uttarad vallabha, etc.

In this line, one may have realization of a localized Pastime through the agency of worship by the Mantra. This is the objective of worship by Mantra.

The general purport is that one who is deeply aspiring to enter into Krishna's Divine Pastimes must, with proper Perspective of his Relationship in the Absolute (Sambandha-jnana) born of Devotional serving disposition (Bhakti-rasa), render Service unto Krishna with the Spiritual inner self. One's Relationship with the Divinity is established when this Intrinsic Knowledge is realized: (1) The Intrinsic Form of Krishna, (2) The Intrinsic Form of Krishna's Divine Pastimes in Vraja, (3) The Intrinsic Form of His Intimate Attendants, the Gopis, (4) The Intrinsic Form of full self-surrender unto Krishna, in the wake of tad vallaba, those who are His most beloved—the Gopis, (5) The pure soul's divine intrinsic form (of Divine Cognition), and (6) Cit-prakrti or the intrinsic divine nature, viz. the intrinsic nature of the soul to render Divine Service unto Sri Krishna.

One who is properly established in such Relativity in the Absolute attains firmness (nistha) in the soul's engagement in Divine Practice (Abhidheya), and comes to know the only life-nectar or Prospect (Prayojana) to be the Joy of Service to the Supreme Male, Sri Krishna, in the 'ego' of a predominated maidservant of Sri Radha. This is the underlying purport.

So initially, the 'meditational' Pastimes of Goloka and Gokula may appear in the heart of a devotee in the stage of holy practice (sadhana) through worship by the Mantra, and secondly, the unrestrained 'free-willed' Pastimes are revealed to the devotee in the stage of perfection (siddha). This is the general position of Goloka or Gokula, which will be further illumined as the text evolves.

The meaning of jyoti-rupena manuna is that the Transcendental purport is revealed in the Mantra, and linking that with the Transcendental Desire (Aprakrta-kama) of Pure Love for Krishna, the life of one who goes on serving in this line becomes saturated with the Supreme Ecstasy of Joyous Love Divine or Premananda-mahananda-rasa. Such Eternal Pastimes full of Love and Joy are ever refulgent in Goloka. [3]

 

Verse 4

tat-kinjalkam tad-amsanam tat-patrani sriyam api [4]

Translation: The core of that Eternal Holy Abode which is called Gokula is the hexagonal Land of Krishna's Abode. The stamens or petals are the Residences of the cowherds or Gopas, who are Krishna's own, His dearmost friends and high loving devotees that are a part of His Own Self. Those Abodes appear like many walls, all beautifully effulgent. The extensive foliage of that Lotus constitutes the subforests that are the Abodes of the Loving Damsels of Krishna, headed by Sri Radhika. [4]

Purport: The Transcendental Gokula is in the Form of a Lotus Flower. Its core is hexagonal; in the centre is the Predominated and Predominating Moiety, Sri Radha-Krishna, who are the Objective of the eighteen-syllable Mantra. Their Various Subjective Personal Expansions (intimate serving Associates) of Intrinsic Divine Potency surround Them. The Seed is Radha-Krishna.

The Gopala-tapaniyopanisad states, tasmad omkara-sambhuto gopalo visvasambhavah, klim omkarasya caikatvam pathyate brahma-vadibhih. Omkara means Gopala, who is both the Potency and the Potent, and Klim means Omkara. Therefore, Klim or the Primary Desire-seed (Kama-bija) expresses the Transcendental Reality of Sri Sri Radha and Krishna. [4]

 

Verse 5

catur asram tat-paritah svetadvipakhyam adbhutam
catur asram catur-mmurttes catur-ddhama catus-krtam
caturbhih purusarthais ca caturbhir hetubhir vrtam
sulair dasabhir anaddham urddhadho digvidiksv api
astabhir nidhibhir justam astabhih siddhibhis tatha
manurupais ca dasabhir dikpalaih parito vrtam
syamair gaurais ca raktais ca suklais ca parsadarsabhaih
sobhitam saktibhis tabhir adbhutabhih samantatah [5]

Translation: (The Area surrounding Gokula is being described.) In the outer section of Gokula there is a miraculous quadrangular Area extending in four directions, known as Svetadvipa. It is divided into four sections on four sides. Each of these divisions are the Residences of Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha.

Surrounding this quadruple Abode are the four aims of human life, or religiosity, gain, desire and emancipation (dharmma-artha-kama-moksa), with their respective inceptive causes, the four VedasRk, Sama, Yajuh and Atharvva, which are mantra in constitution. Ten spears are fixed in eight directions1* (East, South, West, North, North-east, South-east, South-west and North-west), above, and below. The eight directions are illumined by the eight jewels known as Mahapadma, Padma, Sahkha, Makara, Kacchapa, Mukunda, Kunda and Nila, representing the eight perfections.2* All ten directions are presided over by ten guards in the form of mantras. The black, golden, red and white Associates of the Lord, and the miraculous Potencies headed by Vimala are refulgent all around. [5]

1*Purvva, Daksina, Pascima, Uttara, Isana, Agni, Nairrt and Vayu.
2*Anima, mahima, laghima, prapti, prakamya, isita, vasita, and kamavasa-yita—subtleness, relationship with the elements, lightness, attainment, eternal joy, command, detachment and supreme fulfillment (Bha: 11.15).

Purport: Gokula is principally the Seat of Loving Devotion or Prema-bhakti, and thus Yamuna, Govarddhana and Sri Radha-kunda of Vraja-mandala, as manifest in the earthly plane, are all present there. Further, the entire Majesty of Vaikuntha pervades in all directions. All the Quadruple Plenary Expansions (Catur-vyuha-vilasa) of the Lord are present in Their appropriate locations, and from Them the Unlimited Transcendental Kingdom known as Paravyoma-Vaikuntha extends infinitely.

The emancipation of attaining Vaikuntha, and general religiosity, gain and desire, have their appropriate situation in Gokula in their original seed form. The Vedas are also present, ever singing the Glories of the Lord of Gokula. The ten spears of dissuasion fan out in the ten directions to arrest those persons who, without the Grace of Krishna, attempt to approach or associate with Goloka through contemplation. The vainglorious on the paths of meditation and knowledge-cum-renunciation (yoga, jnana) who attempt to approach Goloka are thwarted, being pierced by those ten spears. Nirvvana or 'self-annihilation' reaches its acme in the plane of Brahman; that plane is only the outer covering of Goloka, in the form of those sharp spears.

From the meaning of sula or 'spear' is derived trisula or 'trident'; the trident symbolizes the divisions of the triple worldly qualities (rajas, tamas, sattva) and the threefold aspects of time, or past, present and future. The yogis on the path of eightfold mysticism or the jnanis or liberationists in the monism of non-differentiative Brahman who rashly approach Goloka are summarily cut asunder by those tridents which are situated in the ten directions, and they plunge down to the abyss of hopelessness.

Those who approach Goloka through the path of devotion inspired by opulence and majesty become enamoured by the eight perfections of anima, etc., and the majestic treasures of Mahapadma, etc.; they remain there, charmed by the Vaikuntha aspect which constitutes the outskirts surrounding Goloka. Those who are even less intelligent are subordinated by the ten mantra-guards that keep watch over the ten directions, and they regress to the sevenfold mundane plane (headed by Bhurloka).

Thus, Goloka is practically unknowable and unattainable. There, all the Intrinsic Forms of the Supreme Lord who propound the Dispensations of Pure Religion for the different ages are ever eager to bestow Their Grace upon the devotees who alone reach there through Pure Loving Devotion, Suddha-Prema-Bhakti. In accordance with Their particular hues, those Forms of the Lord are surrounded by Their appropriate Associates, and in Gokula, Their Abode is Svetadvipa.

Therefore, Srila Vrndavana Dasa Thakur, the Vyasa of Chaitanya-lila, has described Nabadwip town as bearing the Name of Svetadvlpa. The culmination of Gokula Pastimes—Nabadwip Pastimes—are eternally present in Svetadvlpa. Thus Nabadwip-mandala, Vraja-mandala and Goloka are One Identical Indivisible Truth; They have manifested diversity only by dint of Their endless Aspects in the unlimited variegatedness of Divine Love. In this respect there is another hidden Truth that is known, by the direct Grace of Krishna, to the great saintly devotees who are imbued with Loving Devotion.

This material world is graded in fourteen basic planes*; the fruitive worker (karmmi) grhasthas desirous of enjoyment wander throughout the three planes of Bhuh, Bhuvah and Svah. Pacified personalities who are indefatigable in the great vow of brahmacaryya, austere and absorbed in truthfulness, by engaging in utterly selfless works move throughout the planes of Maharloka, Janaloka and Tapo-loka, up to Satyaloka. In the upper section of Satyaloka is the abode of Lord Brahma, and above that is the Transcendental Infinite Plane of Vaikuntha which is the Abode of Ksirodakasayi Visnu, who reclines on the Ocean of Milk.

*The seven upper planes are Bhurloka, Bhuvarloka, Svarloka, Maharloka, Janaloka, Tapoloka, and Satyaloka. The seven lower planes are Tala, Atala, Vitala, Nitala, Talatala, Mahatala and Sutala. Earth is within the plane of Bhurloka.

The sannyasi paramahamsas (perfected renunciates) and demons slain by Lord Hari cross the River of Passivity, Viraja; that is, they surpass the entire fourteen planes of the world and attain to the nirvvana of extinction of the soul's individuality by merging in the effulgent plane of Brahman. The devotees who adore the Supreme Majesty of the Lord—devotees desirous of emancipation, pure devotees, devotees of loving sentiment, devotees absorbed in Love and devotees overwhelmed in Love—they all attain a place in Vaikuntha, the Transcendental Infinite Abode of Lord Narayana. Only the devotees who are given to the highest sweetness and charm of the Love of Vraja, and who faithfully follow the residents of Vraja, can reach Goloka-dhama, the Divine Abode of Goloka.

By the inconceivable Potency of Krishna, those devotees are delegated different positions according to their Rasas or Divine serving dispositions. The devotees who faithfully follow the Pure Devotion of residents of Vraja are situated in Krishnaloka, and the devotees who faithfully follow the Pure Devotion of the residents of Nabadwip are situated in Gauraloka. Those devotees who have equal Devotion for both Vraja and Nabadwip attain to the Joy of Service in both Krishnaloka and Gauraloka.

Thus, Sri Jiva Goswami has stated in his Holy Book Sri Gopalacampu, yasya khalu lokasya golokas tatha go-gopavasa-rupasya svetadvipataya cananyasprstah paramasuddhata-samudbuddha-svarupasya tadrsa-jnanamaya-katipayamatra-prameya-patrataya tat-tat-paramata mata, parama-golokah paramah svetadvipa iti: That Supreme Plane is called 'Goloka' because it is the Abode of cows and cowherds—being the Supreme Abode of Ecstatic Pastimes, it is Krishna's Own Self; further, that Supremely Holy Plane is known as 'Svetadvipa' (White Island) due to a unique quality of its unsullied purity, manifest by its peculiar inconceivable Nature as the Seat of certain Nectarine Experiences of a similarly Transcendental Inconceivable Form. Both the Supreme Goloka and the Supreme Svetadvipa Forms are inseparably Goloka-dhama.

The underlying purport is that although Krishna enjoys His Pastimes in Vraja, He is nonetheless unable to taste the Joy of the entirety of Rasa or Divine Ecstasy, and He therefore accepts the Heart and Halo of Sri Radhika, the Female Reservoir of His Love—and for this purpose, Goloka is manifest eternally as Svetadvipa.

We find this illustrated herein: sri-radhayah pranaya-mahima kidrso vanayaiva-, svadyo yenadbhuta-madhurima kidrso va madiyah; saukhyan casya mad anu-bhavatah kidrsam veti lobhat, tad bhavadhyah samajani sacigarbha-sindhau harinduh. “ 'What is that Great Glory of Sri Radha's Love? What is My extraordinary Loving sweetness and charm that Sri Radha enjoys? And what is the Joy Sri Radha feels by experiencing My sweetness and charm?' Yearning to taste these three sentiments, the moon—Krishnachandra—was born from the ocean of the womb of mother Saci.” Herein is revealed the hidden, deep purport of Sri Jiva Goswami.

It is also stated in the Vedas,

Rahasyam te vadisyami—jahnavi-tire navadvipe go-lokakhye dhamni govindo dvibhujo gaurah sarvvatma mahapuruso mahatma mahayogi trigunatitah sattva-rupo bhaktim loke kasyatiti; tad ete sloka bhavanti—eko devah sarvva-rupi mahatma gaura-rakta-syamala-sveta-rupas caitanyatma; sa vai caitanya-saktir bhaktakaro bhaktido bhaktivedyah.

“Let me divulge this mystery to you: 'On the bank of the Ganges, in the Holy Abode of Nabadwip, the selfsame Goloka-dhama, Govinda Gaurachandra appears in a human feature. He is the Soul of all souls, the Supreme Lord, the Great Saintly Personality, the Great Sannyasi who is the Embodiment of Pure Existence transcendental to the three qualities of material nature. He reveals Pure Devotion to the world. He is the Lord, One without a second, the Embodiment of all aspects of the Absolute, the Supreme Soul and Avatara through the ages in golden, red, black and white hues. He is directly the Supreme Personality of Divine Cognition replete with all Transcendental Potency. He Advents in the feature of His devotee, He is the Bestower of Devotion, and He is knowable by Devotion.'”

In many Scriptural references such as “asan varnas trayah”, “krsna-varnam tvisa 'krsnam”, “yada pasyah pasyati rukma-varnam”, “mahan prabhur vai", etc., Gaurachandra is established as identical with Krishna. Yet the Golden Form in which He graciously appears in the Eternal Abode of Nabadwip, identical with Goloka, where He is ever devoted to tasting the Nectar of the Divine Pastimes of Sri Sri Radha and Krishna—that Golden (Gaura) Form also appears in every one of these Vedic statements.

As by the Potency of Yogamaya, or the Current of Krishna's Internal Personal Potency, His Birth and other Pastimes occur in Gokula localized in the earthly plane, similarly, by the same Potency of Yogamaya the Golden Lord Gaura's Advent from the womb of mother Sacidevi and all His Divine Pastimes occur in Sri Nabadwip Dhama in the earthly locality.

This Divine Truth is an axiomatic principle of Spiritual Science, and not a figment of the imagination subordinate to Maya, the deluding potency. [5]

 

Verse 6

evam jyotirmmayo devah sadanandah paratparah
atmaramasya tasyasti prakrtya na samagamah [6]

Translation: That Lord of Gokula is the Transcendental Supreme Personality of Godhead—the Own Self of Eternal Ecstasy. He is beyond the purview of mundanity, and He ever enjoys in the all-conscious Spiritual Realm; He is never associated with the beguiling mundane nature. [6]

Purport: Krishna's Exclusive Divine Potency, His Own Personified Potency, has manifest the Pastimes of Goloka or Gokula. By Her Grace, the jivas, who are of the marginal potency, may also enter into those Pastimes. The secondary external Maya potency, who is like the shadow of that Divine (Cit) Potency, is situated on the far (lower) shore of the Viraja river, which is at the lower limit of the Brahman plane; and the Brahman is situated at the lowest boundary of Maha-Vaikuntha, which is the surrounding locality or outskirts of Goloka. In the face of such infinite purity, the external Maya potency feels ashamed to appear in Krishna's view, to say nothing of taking His association. [6]

 

Verse 7

mayaya 'ramamanasya na viyogas taya saha
atmana ramaya reme tyakta-kalam sisrksaya [7]

Translation: Krishna is the indifferent Predominator of the external deluding nature, Maya: He does not consort with external Maya. Yet Maya is not wholly separate or divorced from the Supreme Absolute Truth that is Krishna. In His Will to create the world, He unites with His own Transcendental Potency, Rama; and His enjoyment in the form of casting His glance, which is the dispatching of His potency of time, is purely indirect. [7]

Purport: Krishna does not directly associate with the Maya potency; His relationship with her is only an indirect hint of association; He glances at the Maya potency through the Agency of (in the form of) His Predominative Descent or Purusavatara, Karanarnavasayl Visnu (Maha-Visnu), who reclines on the Causal Ocean; Karanarnavasayi Visnu is a Plenary Portion of Maha-Sankarsana of Vaikuntha, and Vaikuntha is the Plenary Abode of Krishna.

Nor does the-Lord associate with Maya even by that act of glancing, since the Divine Potency, Rama, as His unfailingly loyal Potency, carries the function of His glancing. The external Maya, as a maidservant of Rama, engages in the service of the Lord's Plenary Portion united with Rama, and the current of time is the Supernatural Power of Rama that accomplishes the work, and thus, the predominant influence in the universal creative power. [7]

 

Verse 8

niyatih sa rama-devi tat-priya tad-vasam tada
tal-lingam bhagavan sambhur jyotirupah sanatanah
ya yonih sapara saktih kama-bijah mahadd-hareh [8]

Translation: (That indirect association with Maya is being described.) The Personification of the Transcendental Potency of the Lord, Ramadevi, is Destiny, Beloved Consort of the Supreme Lord. At creation, the appearance of the effulgence of the Portion of Krishna's Plenary Portion is Bhagavan Sambhu, the manifest male organ of the Divinity—the reflection of the Eternal Effulgence. Subject to the Potency of Destiny, that male symbol is the portion of the Absolute responsible for the generation of the material world. The reproductive potency that evolves from Destiny appears as the female organ, the embodiment of Maya, the inferior potency. The union of these organs brings forth the existence of the Mahat-tattva, which is only a reflection of the Supreme Lord Hari's Original Seed of Desire (Kama-bija). [8]

Purport: Being endowed with the creative desire, the Plenary Expansion of Krishna, Sankarsana, takes the initiative in bringing about the creation of the mundane world. Taking the Form of the first Predominative Descent (Purusavatara), He reclines on the Causal Waters and casts a glance at Maya.

That glance is instrumental in the cause of the creation. The twilight image of that reflected effulgence of the Almighty is effectively the organ of generation, Sambhu, which unites with the reproductive paraphernalia of Maya, the shadow of the Rama Potency. Then, the reflection of the Original Seed of Desire, Kama-bija, emerges as the Mahat-tattva, the great or universal seminal principle, and engages in the creative function. The initial manifestation of the desire created by Maha-Visnu is known as Hiranmaya Mahat-tattva; it is the mental principle of readiness for universal creation.

The inner conception here is that assuming both the instrumental and efficient causes (nimitta-upadana), the Will of the Predominator or Purusa creates. The instrumental cause is personified as Maya, who represents the female reproductive organ; the efficient cause is personified as Sambhu, who represents the male generative organ; and Maha-Visnu is the Predominator, or the Inaugurator by His Will.

The primordial ingredients or substance (Pradhana) is efficient, while the female receptacle principle (Prakrti) is Maya; and the Willing Factor that unites them is the Manifestor of the illusory mundane world, the Predominator (Purusa), who is a Plenary Expansion of Krishna. These three form the Agency of universal creation.

The Original Seed of Desire, Kama-bija, that exists in Goloka, is Pure Transcendental Cognition, and the seed of desire that exists in the material world is a manifestation of the shadow potency personified as Kali and other forms. Despite being the prototype of Maya, the Original Seed of Desire is infinitely distant from Maya; the mundane seed of desire is an illusory reflection. The process of Sambhu's birth is described in verses ten and fifteen. [8]

 

Verse 9

linga-yony-atmika jata ima mahesvari prajah [9]

Translation: The world's entire progeny in Maya's kingdom is the embodiment of the sexual union of male and female organs. [9]

Purport: The Sovereignty of the Supreme Personality of Godhead covers the entire four quadrants of the Infinite Majesty of God. Lamentation, death and apprehension are absent in the three quadrants of the Lord's Majesty that are the Divine Abodes of Vaikuntha, Goloka, etc. In this illusory world, all beings from gods to men, etc., along with all their planes of existence, are under the reign of Maya; here, all that be is efficiently and instrumentally generated, that is, born of sexual union. With all the discoveries of material science, everything knowable is of sexual origin. Trees, plants and even insentient beings are all produced of the union of male and female.

It deserves mention here that although the allusion to male and female organs presupposes a kind of vulgarity, in a scientific context the exposition based on the principle of sexuality is most appropriate and excellent for its profoundness in illustrating elementary principles. The vulgarity felt is nothing more than a concept of social formality, but science and transcendental science cannot compromise the element of truth with mere social formality.

So the application is indispensable in expounding on the primordial principle of the material world, that is, the illusory seed of desire. The predominating potency or masculine active potency and the female potency or predominated active potency are all that is to be understood by the use of such terms herein. [9]

 

Verse 10

saktiman purusah so 'yam linga-rupi mahesvarah
tasminn-avir abhul-linge mahavisnur jagat-patih [10]

Translation: Mahesvara Sambhu, the male principle of the efficient cause representing the primal male organ, is united with the instrumental cause represented by his Maya potency. Maha-Visnu, the Lord of the universe, partially advents within him by the casting of His glance. [10]

Purport: Sri Narayana, nondifferent from Krishna, presides in the Paravyoma, the area of the Spiritual World predominated by majesty and reverence. Maha-Sankarsana is one of Sri Narayana's Quadruple Expansions or Catur-vyuha, so even He is a Plenary Portion of Krishna's Narayana Form. By His Spiritual Potency, Maha-Sankarsana's Plenary Expansion eternally reclines on the Viraja river, which is situated at the point midway between the Transcendental World and the mundane world; and at the time of universal creation He casts a glance at the distant shadow Maya potency.

At that moment, the reflection of the Intrinsic Form of Godhead in the Form of His Divine glance—Sambhu, the lord of the Pradhana or primordial material elements, the energy of which is personified by his Rudra form—unites with the mundane instrumental cause, Maya; but he is unable to act without being empowered by Maha-Visnu, who represents the direct Divine Power of Krishna. Therefore, the material seminal element (Mahat-tattva) can come forth only when Krishna's Plenary Expansion, that is—the Primal Avatara Maha-Visnu who is a Plenary Portion of Maha-Sankarsana, who is a Plenary Expansion of Krishna—sanctions the mutual function of Siva's Maya potency and the efficient causal primordial material elements.

With Maha-Visnu's sanction, the Siva potency progressively creates ego (ahankara) and the five basic elements (panca-bhuta) of ether, etc., the subtle form of their attributes (sense objects, tanmatra), and the mundane senses of the (conditioned) soul. The individual souls or jivas emanate as particles of the rays of the Effulgence of Maha-Visnu. This will be elucidated later in this commentary. [10]

 

Verse 11

sahasra-sirsa purusah sahasraksah sahasra-pat
sahasra-bahur visvatma sahasramsah sahasra-suh [11]

Translation: That Lord of the universe, Maha-Visnu, possesses thousands upon thousands of Faces, thousands upon thousands of Eyes, thousands upon thousands of Feet, thousands upon thousands of Arms, thousands upon thousands of Incarnations in thousands upon thousands of Plenary Expansions; He is the Soul of the universe and the Creator of thousands upon thousands of living beings. [11]

Purport: Maha-Visnu, the Object of worship of the hymns of all the Vedas, is endowed with Infinite Senses and Potencies, and He is the Original Avatara from whom all other Avataras descend. [11]

 

Verse 12

narayanah sa bhagavan apas tasmat sanatanat
avir asit karanarno-nidhih sankarsanatmakah
yoganidram gatas tasmin sahasramsah svayam mahan [12]

Translation: Maha-Visnu is known as 'Narayana' in the mundane world. From this eternal Personality the water of the Causal Ocean is born. A Plenary Portion of Sankarsana of the Paravyoma, with thousands upon thousands of Plenary Expansions, He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Supreme Male; for His Divine Sleep (Yoga-nidra) He reclines upon those waters of the Causal Ocean. [12]

Purport: The Supreme Lord's Ecstatic Trance in the intrinsic Joy of His Own Self is called Yoga-nidra. Rama-devi, mentioned previously, is Herself Yoganidra Personified as Yogamaya, the Divine Potency of the Lord. [12]

 

Verse 13

tad-roma-bila-jalesu bijam sankarsanasya ca
haimany-andani jatani mahabhutavrtani tu [13]

Translation: The Divine Seeds of Sankarsana are born from the Pores of Maha-Visnu as infinite golden egg-cells; those golden cells are covered by the five predominant material elements. [13]

Purport: Such is the colossal magnitude of the function of the Primal Avatara Personality who reclines on the waters of the Causal Ocean. Infinite billions of 'seeds,' each a universe, are produced from the cavities of His Bodily Pores. Those universes are copies of the Infinite Abode of the Spiritual World; as long as they remain Within the Body of the Purusavatara, they are, as a lower or hazy aspect of Divinity (Cidabhasa), something like golden eggs; but when Maha-Visnu decides to bring about the creation of this world, the subtle existence of the predominant material elements—which participates as a factor of the Mayik instrumental and efficient causes—envelops them. Those golden 'cosmic eggs' emanate with the exhalation of the Supreme Personality, and when they enter into the unlimited womb-chamber of Maya they are augmented by the unamalgamated five mundane elements (earth, water, fire, air and ether). [13]

 

Verse 14

praty-andam evam ekamsad ekamsad visati svayam
sahasra-murddha visvatma mahavisnuh sanatanah [14]

Translation: That Maha-Visnu enters into each and every universe (or cosmic egg) in His individual Plenary Portions. All those Divine Portions are His Supramundane Almighty Form—the Eternal Form of Maha-Visnu with thousands upon thousands of heads—the Soul of the universe. [14]

Purport: Maha-Visnu reclining on the Causal Ocean is the Plenary Portion of Maha-Sankarsana; as many universes emanate from Him, He enters into every one of them as His Personal Portions. Every one of those Portions is the Garbhodakasayi Purusa, who is in all respects similar to Maha-Visnu. Garbhodakasayi Visnu is known as the aggregate Antaryyami or the collective, omnipresent Supersoul of the universes. [14]

 

Verse 15

vamangad asrjad visnum daksinangat prajapatim
jyotir-llingamayam sambhum kurcca-desad avasrjat [15]

Translation: Maha-Visnu created Visnu from His left side, Prajapati from His right side, and He created Sambhu, the Divine manifested masculine effulgence, from between His Eyebrows. [15]

Purport: Here, Sri Visnu refers to the individual Antaryyami or Supersoul present in the hearts of all jivas, the Ksirodakasayi Purusa reclining on the ocean of milk. Prajapati or 'primal progenitor' as the Supreme Lord's Portion, Hiranyagarbha, is distinct from four-headed Brahma in that he is the seed principle of all the Brahmas of the countless universes. The Divine manifested masculine effulgence form of Sambhu is the plenary manifestation of his origin, the original primal male generative Sambhu (who has been described previously).

Visnu is the Plenary Expansion Entity (Svamsa-tattva) of Maha-Visnu, and thus He is Sarvva-Mahesvara or the Supreme Lord of all; and Prajapati Brahma and Sambhu are Maha-Visnu's separated parts (vibhinnamsa), and thus they are gods of delegated office. Since the Lord's Personal Potency always stays at His left side, Visnu, who appears from Maha-Visnu's Transcendental Potency of Unalloyed Reality, appears from the left side of His Body.

Visnu is the Supersoul present within the hearts of all jivas. He is the Personality of Godhead described in the Vedas as being the measure of a thumb; He is the Preserver; the karmmis or elevationists worship Him as 'Yajnesvara Narayana' or the Lord of sacrifices, and the yogis meditate on Him as Paramatman, desiring to become one with Him. [15]

 

Verse 16

ahankaratmakam visvam tasmad etad vyajayata [16]

Translation: This world of mundane ego has been born of Sambhu. This is Sambhu's function in relationship with the jivas. [16]

Purport: The most original unadulterated Entity is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the All-Truth, free from any conception of separate egoism. The separate masculine organic egoism, that is, the separate symbolic existence that appears in the mundane world, is only an illusory reflection of that Pure Existence; and represented by the original Sambhu, that existence unites with the distorted representation of Ramadevi, the Mayik or mundane female womb receptacle principle; at that point, Sambhu is represented as the efficient cause only in terms of elementary matter. Again, when in the course of evolution all the universes are manifest the evolved conception of 'Rudra' also appears within the entity of Sambhu who is, as previously explained, born from the brow of Maha-Visnu; however, the entity of Sambhu is constitutionally egoistic (ahankaratmaka) in all circumstances.

When the endless jivas—who are sparks of Cit or transcendental consciousness emanating from the Cit-rays of the Paramatman—identify themselves in the (pure) ego of exclusive servitors of the Supreme Lord, their relationship with the Mayik world no longer endures; they become members of the Vaikuntha World. When they forget that ego and want to become enjoyers of Maya, the egoistic principle of Sambhu enters their existence and gives them the frame of reference of being separate enjoyers.

Thus, Sambhu is the basic truth underlying the egoistic world and the mundane bodily ego of the jivas. [16]

 

Verse 17

atha tais trividhair vesair lilam udvahatah kila
yoganidra bhagavati tasya srir iva sangata [17]

Translation: Thereafter, that Supreme Personality of Godhead, having entered the universe in the guises of Visnu, Brahma and Sambhu, enacts His pastimes of sustenance, creation and annihilation. These pastimes pertain to the mundane world; thus, since they are of a lower order, the Lord remains aloof, consorting with His Yoganidra who is an Aspect of His Divine Potency in His Inherent Existence as Visnu. She is the Female Embodiment of His Trance of Intrinsic Divine Ecstasy. [17]

Purport: As separated parts (vibhinnamsa) of the Entity of the Lord, both Prajapati and Sambhu are within the purview of separate egoism and thus each consort with their own alternate potencies in the forms of Savitri and Uma. Only Bhagavan, the Supreme Personality of Godhead Visnu, is the Lord of the Divine or Cit-Potency Personified in the Form of Rama or Sri. [17]

 

Verse 18

sisrksayam tato nabhes tasya padmam viniryyayau
tan-nalam hema-nalinam brahmano lokam adbhutam [18]

Translation: When Garbhodakasayi Visnu desires to create the universe, a golden lotus flower appears from His Navel. Situated on a stem, that lotus is Brahmaloka or Satyaloka, the abode of Lord Brahma. [18]

Purport: Here the word 'gold' refers to cidabhasa—the hazy aspect or reflection of Divinity. [18]

 

Verse 19

tattvani purvvarudhani karanani parasparam
samavayaprayogac ca vibhinnani prthak prthak
cic-chaktya sajjamano 'tha bhagavan adi-purusah
yojayan mayaya devo yoganidram akalpayat [19]

Translation: Prior to their amalgamation, the five predominant material elements remained in their crude state, separate in different forms. At this point, the process of combining them had not yet ensued. By associating with His Divine Potency, the Primeval Personality of Godhead Maha-Visnu moved Maya and united those separate elements by His process of amalgamating or harmonizing them, and executed the creation of the material world. And He remained absorbed in Yoganidra, which is His consorthood with His Divine Potency. [19]

Purport: mayadhyaksena prakrtih suyate sacaracaram: “All moving and nonmoving beings are created by Mother Nature, according to My direction.” The purport of this statement in Sri Gita is as follows. Initially, Maya, the shadow of the Cit Potency or Divine Potency, was inactive; also, the elements of her expanse of ingredients that would form the efficient cause of creation were separate and unamalgamated. By Krishna's will, that is, by the agency of the Power of Maha-Visnu, the instrumental and efficient parts of Maya were united, and the effect in the form of the material world was manifest. Despite that, throughout that entire function the Supreme Lord Himself remained united with His Divine Potency, Yoganidra.

The word 'Yoganidra' or 'Yogamaya' should be understood as follows: the nature of the Divine Potency is illuminating or revelatory, while the nature of Her shadow potency is to manifest the darkness of mundane ignorance. When Krishna wishes to illuminate or reveal something in the affairs of the material world of darkness. He executes the task by contacting (yoga) the inert shadow of Maya with the Super-Power of His Divine Potency; and this is the constitution of 'Yogamaya.'

Herein are two connotations—the Vaikuntha connotation and the worldly, ignorant connotation. Krishna, Krishna's Plenary Expansions (Svamsa), and those of His separated particles or souls (vibhinnamsa-jivas) that are completely pure, experience the Vaikuntha connotation in that revelation, while the materially conditioned souls feel a mundane, ignorant connotation. A screen veils the spiritual experience in the perceptual faculties of the materially conditioned souls, and this screen goes by the name 'Yoganidra'; this is also the influence of the Potency of the Supreme Lord. This principle will be dealt with more elaborately later. [19]

 

Verse 20

yojayitva tu tany eva pravivesa svayam guham
guham praviste tasmims tu jivatma pratibudhyate [20]

Translation: Amalgamating all those disjointed elements, He manifested endless mundane universes and Personally entered into the guha, that is, He entered the inner region of the aggregate of universal forms. At that time, the jivas who slept at the cataclysm were awakened. [20]

Purport: The word guha has been given many interpretations in the Scriptures. In certain places the unmanifest Pastimes of the Lord have been referred to as guha, and elsewhere the place of location of the individual Supersoul of each universe has been referred to as guha; also in many places, the innermost recess of each jiva's heart has been called guha. The basic point is that any place that is unrevealed to the general observer is known as guha.

In the previous millennium, all the jivas that were merged in the Body of the Supreme Lord Hari during the great universal devastation that occured at the end of Lord Brahma's lifetime were again manifest in the world in positions according to the impulses of their previous worldly actions or karmma (jivatma pratibudhyate). [20]

 

Verse 21

sa nityo nitya-sambandhah prakrtis ca paraiva sa [21]

Translation: The jiva is eternal, and has an eternal relationship with the Lord for beginningless and endless time; he is of the superior or transcendental energy. [21]

Purport: As there is a perpetual relationship between the sun and its rays of effulgence, the Supreme Lord and the jivas similarly have an eternal relationship. The jivas are atomic particles of His rays of consciousness or Divine Potency, and thus they are not temporary like any mundane substance. Being particles of the rays of His Effulgence, they have inherited a minute proportion of Krishna's Qualities; therefore, the jiva is an embodiment of perception, the perceiver, egoism, the enjoyer, the thinker and the doer. The mutual distinction between Krishna and the jiva is that Krishna is Almighty while the jiva is atomic. Their eternal relationship is that the jiva is the eternal servitor of the Supreme Lord, and the Lord is his Eternal Master. The jiva is also endowed with ample eligibility in respect to Rasa or a Divine Ecstatic Relationship with the Lord.

The statement of Sri Gita apareyam itas tv anyam prakrtim vidhi me param informs us that the jivas are of Krishna's superior or transcendental energy; all the qualities of the pure soul are transcendental to the eight material qualities of ego, etc. Therefore, the jiva-potency, despite the minuteness of its magnitude, is constitutionally superior to illusion or maya.

Another name of the jiva-potency is tatastha-sakti, or 'marginal potency,' being that he is located on the line of demarcation between the plane of Maya and Divinity; due to his minuteness he is prone to be captivated by illusion, but when he remains submissive to Krishna, the Master of Maya, he is no longer susceptible to the thralldom of Maya. The conditioned soul who is captivated by Maya since time immemorial must undergo worldly tribulation and sorrow, and be reborn again and again. [21]

 

Verse 22

evam sarvvatma-sambandham nabhyam padmam harer abhut
tatra brahmabhavad bhuyas caturvvedi caturmmukhah [22]

Translation: The lotus that appears from the Navel of Visnu is linked in the relativity of all souls. Four-headed Brahma, the knower of the four Vedas, takes his birth within that lotus. [22]

Purport: That lotus, which is the residence of the aggregate jivas, appears from the Purusa omnipresent within the universal forms. The personification of worldly pleasure, four-headed Brahma, is born from the Original Brahma, Hiranyagarbha, who represents the aggregate jivas in conditioned bodily existence. Thus, the position of Lord Brahma is elucidated: as a god of delegated power, he similarly has the property of being a part of Krishna as a separated portion (vibhinnamsa). [22]

 

Verse 23

sanjato bhagavac-chaktya tat-kalam kila coditah
sisrksayam matim cakre purvva-samskara-samskrtam
dadarsa kevalam dhvantam nanyat kim api sarvvatah [23]

Translation: Upon his birth, Lord Brahma, directed by the Potency of the Supreme Lord, contemplated the matter of creation according to the tendencies shaped by his previous lives (purvva-samskara); but he could see nothing but darkness in all directions. [23]

Purport: Lord Brahma's attempt to create is only the result of impulses shaped by his previous situations. Every jiva accrues a nature and personality according to such a process, and by dint of that nature the jiva's attempts take shape. This is known as the 'unseen' or the 'fruit of action' (karmma-phala). Lord Brahma's natural impulse ensues by dint of his deeds in the previous age. In the same way, certain eligible jivas also attain to the post of Brahma. [23]

 

Verse 24

uvaca puratas tasmai tasya divya sarasvati
kama-krsnaya govinda-ne gopijana ity api
vallabhaya priya vahner mantram te dasyati priyam [24]

Translation: Then the Divine Vibration of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Divya Saraswati, said to Brahma as he was seeing darkness all around, “O Brahman, klim krsnaya govindaya gopijana-vallabhaya svaha—this Mantra will bring about the fulfillment of all your cherished desires.” [24]

Purport: The Mantra of eighteen syllables including the Seed of Aspiration (Klim) is supreme. It has two attributes, one of which is to impell the pure soul towards the Supreme Charmer of the heart, Krishna—the Lord of Gokula, the Lord of the Gopis. This is the acme of the soul's divine pursuit. When the devotee practitioner becomes free from selfish desire, he can attain to the perfection of Divine Love, Prema, in this way. Yet in the case of the practitioner who harbours some personal desires, this supreme Mantra fulfills those desires too. In the Divine concept, the Seed of Aspiration is intrinsic within the Lotus of Goloka; and the seed of desire reflected in material objects fulfills all kinds of desires in the Mayik world. [24]

 

Verse 25

tapas tvam tapa etena tava siddhir bhavisyati [25]

Translation:. “O Brahman, execute penance while contemplating upon this Mantra, and you will attain to all perfection.” [25]

Purport: The purport is self-evident. [25]

 

Verse 26

atha tepe sa suciram prinan govindam avyayam
svetadvipa-patim krsnam goloka-stham paratparam
prakrtya guna-rupinya rupinya paryyupasitam
sahasra-dala-sampanne koti-kinjalka-brmhite
bhumis cintamanis tatra karnikare mahasane
samasinam cidanandam jyotirupam sanatanam
sabda-brahmamayam venum vadayantam mukhambuje
vilasiniganavrtam svaih svair amsair abhistutam [26]

Translation: Desiring to attain the Grace of Govinda, Brahma took up practising long penance for the pleasure of that Lord of Svetadvipa, who is none other than Krishna in Goloka. Brahma's meditation followed in this line: in the Land made of wish-fulfilling gems is a thousand-petalled Lotus Flower that blooms with millions of stamens.

In the centre of the Lotus there is a Grand Throne, upon which the Eternal Sri Krishna, the Embodiment of the Effulgence of Divine Loving Ecstasy, is seated. On His Lotus Lips the Flute of Transcendental Sound is vibrating sonorously, and His Glories are sung by the Gopis of His Pastimes (who surround Him), along with the Gopis' Associates who are their respective Personal Expansions.

As the Supreme Worshippable Object, He is worshipped (from outside) by Prakrti (Maya), who is the embodiment of material qualities (gunas). [26]

Purport: Maya's nature is materially active (rajasik), and she assumes the forms of Durga, etc., embodying the qualities of material truth, activation and inertia or sattva, rajah and tamoguna; however, the Object of her meditation is completely Transcendental, and thus Maya—the embodiment of the inferior potency—meditates upon Krishna with a reverential or worshipful attitude.

Whoever has material hankering in the heart should worship Mayadevi's Object of worship. Even without worshipping Mayadevi, they will attain success by worshipping Mayadevi's Object of worship. The purport of the Srimad-Bhagavatam verse akamah sarvva-kamo va moksa-kama udaradhih, tivrena bhaktiyogena yajeta purusam param is that although the various demigods as expansions of the power of the Supreme Lord are the bestowers of certain rewards, an intelligent person nonetheless worships with resolute Devotion the Supreme Godhead, who is replete with the Potency to bestow all fruits.

Thus Brahma meditated upon Mayadevi's reverentially worshipful Truth, Krishna, the Supreme Enjoyer of His Pastimes in Goloka. Pure Devotion that is free from all kinds of fleeting desires is niskama-bhakti, or Devotion devoid of vested interest or selfishness; the devotion of Brahma and personalities of his general calibre is sakama or possessing some personal interest. Still, even within such devotion with vested interest there is a selfless stage, and this will be elucidated in the last five verses of this Holy Book. As long as one has not attained to svarupa-siddhi or perfection in one's divine self, the method given herein is the convenient way of rendering Devotional Service for the fallen conditioned soul. [26]

 

Verse 27

atha venu-ninadasya trayi-murttimayi gatih
sphuranti pravivesasu mukhabjani svayambhuvah
gayattrim gayatas tasmad adhigatya sarojajah
samskrtas cadiguruna dvijatam agamat tatah [27]

Translation: Thereafter, the Gayattri of threefold Form, that is, of the Form of Omkara (A-u-m), emanated as the beautiful harmonious sequence of the Song of Sri Krishna's Flute. Entering the ears of Brahma, it was swiftly manifest within his lotus mouth. Thus Brahma, who was born of the lotus flower, received Gayattri as it emanated from the Divine Flute-Song of Sri Krishna, and so he was initiated by the Supreme Lord, the Original Guru, and elevated to the status of twice-bom (dvija). [27]

Purport: The Divine Vibration of Krishna's Flute is a Sound of Truth, Cognizance and Ecstasy (Saccidanandamaya), and so the paragon of the Vedas is present within that Divine Sound. Gayattri is a Vedic metre embracing both meditation and prayer in a compact form. Furthermore, Kama-Gayattri is topmost since the prayer and meditation contained within it are of the nature of full-fledged Divine Pastimes in a manner not found in any other Gayattri.

Kama-Gayattri, which is the Gayattri taken after the eighteen-syllabled Mantra, is klim kamadevaya vidmahe puspabanaya dhimahi tanno 'nangah pracodayat. In this Gayattri is indicated the realization of the Lila or Divine Pastimes of Sri Gopijanavallabha, the Beloved of the Gopis, after complete meditation upon Him; and the prayer to attain to (the Service of) that Transcendental Cupid. In the entire Transcendental World there is no higher pursuit for Divine Love in the shelter of an Ecstatic Relationship with Him.

As soon as that Gayattri entered into the ears of Lord Brahma, he attained the purificatory initiation into the status of the twice-born or dvija, and he began to sing the Gayattri.

Any jiva who has properly received this Gayattri has attained to divine rebirth. This rebirth is entrance into the Transcendental Plane, something infinitely superior to the status of the initiation or second birth of the materially conditioned souls that is given according to their nature or lineage in the material world. By divine initiation, the rebirth that is the attainment of divine birth, one reaches the Spiritual World—the ultimate glory of the jiva. [27]

 

Verse 28

trayya prabuddho 'tha vidhir vijhata-tattva-sagarah
tustava vedasarena stotrenanena kesavam [28]

Translation: Becoming enlightened by meditating upon that threefold Gayattri, Brahma became acquainted with the Ocean of Truth. Then he worshipped Sri Krishna, singing His Transcendental Glories by this Hymn, which is the Quintessence of all the Vedas. [28]

Purport: By meditating upon the Kama-Gayattri, Brahma began to conceive, 'I am an eternal maidservant of Krishna.' Although the profound mysteries of Servitorship as a maidservant of Sri Krishna were not necessarily revealed to him, his discrimination between spirit and matter developed to such a degree that an Ocean of Truth came within his grasp. When all the expressions of the Vedas thus became manifest within him, he sung this Hymn, which expresses the Quintessence of all the Vedas. Because in all respects this hymn is replete with the Vaisnava-siddhanta (Perfect Conclusions or Truths of Vaisnavism), Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu has taught it to His Personally favoured devotees.

The good readers may take the opportunity to daily sing and relish this Hymn with devotion. [28]

 

Verse 29

cintamani-prakarasadmasu kalpavrksa-
laksavrtesu surabhir abhipalayantam
laksmi-sahasra-sata-sambhrama-sevyamanam
govindam adi purusam tam aham bhajami [29]

Translation:
Surrounded by millions of wish-fulfilling trees,
     in Abodes made of multitudes of wish-yielding gems.
He who tends the ever-yielding cows
     and who is perpetually served with great Affection
by hundreds of thousands of Laksmis—
     the Primeval Lord, Govinda, do I worship. [29]

Purport: Here, by the word cintamani, 'transcendental gem' is to be understood. As the potency of Maya forms the mundane world from five basic material elements, the Divine Potency has fashioned the Transcendental World from the Transcendental Element of cintamani. There, the Element of cintamani that serves as the structural material of the Residence of the Supreme Lord is infinitely more rare and charming than the general cintamani known as a 'philosopher's stone.' The general wish-fulfilling tree yields the fruits of dharmma, artha, kama and moksa, or religion, wealth, desire and liberation, whereas the wish-fulfilling trees in Krishna's Abode yield unending fruits of Love Divine in full variegatedness. The general kama-dhenu or cows of plenty give milk as soon as they are milked, whereas from the udders of the cows of Goloka perpetually flows an ocean of the milk that is the fountain of Love Divine, showering Transcendental Ecstasy upon the pure devotee jivas, dispelling all their hunger and thirst.

The words laksa-laksa and sahasra-sata or hundreds of thousands (of Laksmls) indicate infinite multitudes; sambhrama (describing the Laksmis' Service to Krishna) indicates 'with hearts saturated with Love'; laksmi means 'beautiful cowherd damsels' or 'Gopis'; and adi-purusa means 'He who is the Origin of all that be.' [29]

 

Verse 30

venum kvanantam aravinda-dalayataksam
barhavatamsam asitambuda-sundarangam
kandarpa-koti-kamaniya-visesa-sobham
govindam adi purusam tam aham bhajami [30]

Translation:
Always playing the flute,
     His eyes like blooming lotus-petals,
His head adorned with a peacock feather,
     His beautiful Form the hue of a blue cloud;
with the unique beauty that charms millions of Cupids—
     the Primeval Lord, Govinda, do I adore. [30]

Purport: (The unparalleled beauty of Krishna, the Darling of Goloka, is being described.) The Almighty Consciousness, Krishna, has a Spiritual Form by Nature. It is not that Krishna's Form can be imagined in comparison to anything beautiful in the material world. What is being described here is what Brahma is seeing in his divine trance of Devotion.

Krishna is rapt in playing His flute; the beautiful dancing notes of that flute steal away the hearts of all living beings. As the petal of the lotus flower showers sweetness into our hearts, Krishna's Eyes, as the revelation of divine vision, expand the unlimited beauty of His moonlike face. His characteristic celestial beauty is set off by the charming ornament of the peacock feather that adorns His head. We feel tranquillity in our hearts when we see a blue rain-cloud—the hue of Krishna's Body is of a similar Divine blackish-blue. Even if we could see or imagine the qualities of this world's Cupid multiplied billions of times, the beauty of Krishna is yet more charming. [30]

 

Verse 31

alola-candraka-lasad-vanamalya-vamsi-
ratnangadam pranayakelikala-vilasam
syamam tribhangalalitam niyata-prakasam
govindam adi purusam tam aham bhajami [31]

Translation:
Around His neck is a garland of forest-flowers
     swinging to and fro,
and adorned with a peacock feather locket;
     His flute held in hands
adorned with jewelled bracelets,
     He who eternally revels in Pastimes of Love,
whose charming threefold curved Form,
     Syamasundar, is His Eternal Feature—
that Primeval Lord Govinda do I adore. [31]

Purport: The cintamarii-prakara verse is description of the Divine Abode and the Divine Names headed by Govinda; the venum kvanantam verse is a description of the Lord's Eternal Divine Form; and in this verse that Form's Divine Amorous Pastimes embodied in sixty-four Transcendental Qualities are described. Whatever Divine Affairs can be described in the scope of Divine Consorthood, Madhura-rasa, are found within these Loving Pastimes. [31]

 

Verse 32

angani yasya sakalendriya-vrttimanti
pasyanti panti kalayanti ciram jaganti
ananda-cinmaya-sad-ujjvala-vigrahasya
govindam adi purusam tam aham bhajami [32]

Translation:
I worship that Primeval Lord Govinda, whose Form
     is all-Ecstatic, all-Conscious and all-Truth,
and thus, full of the most dazzling splendour;
     every Part of that Transcendental Form
possesses the functions of all His Senses,
     as He eternally sees, maintains and regulates
infinite universes, both spiritual and mundane. [32]

Purport: Due to their paucity of a taste for spirituality, a grave doubt wells up in the minds of persons bound by mundane knowledge. Hearing the descriptions of Krishna's Pastimes (Lila) they conjecture that the Krishna conception has been conjured up by the fertile brains of some scholarly scribes inspired by mundane experiences. To dispell such a venomous doubt, in this and the following three verses Brahma distinguishes between material and spiritual elements in a scientific manner, and he attempts to give an understanding of Krishna-lila as perceived in the undivided attention of pure consciousness (suddha-samadhi).

Brahma's aim is to establish that the Form of Krishna is the Entity of Eternity, Cognizance and Bliss, while all mundane phenomena are of the nature of the darkness of ignorance. Beyond this specific distinction between the two, the basic principle to be realized is that the Transcendental is the most fundamental or original—as the Original Person, differentiation and variegatedness are ever-present in Him. Thereby, Krishna's Divine Abode, Divine Form, Divine Name, Quality and Pastimes are established as Tangible Reality.

Those Pastimes are to be tasted only by a person who is endowed with pure theistic intellect and full freedom from any relationship with mundanity. The Holy Abode, the Place of Pastimes made of Divine wish-yielding gems manifest by Divine Potency, and Krishna's Form—all are Transcendental.

As the Maya potency is a shadow of the Cit or Transcendental Potency, similarly, the variegatedness fashioned by Maya is also a contemptible reflection or shadow of the variegatedness in the Transcendental Plane. It is for this reason that some semblance of the Transcendental variegatedness may be apparent in the mundane world. Despite that semblance, there is a gulf of distinction between the two. The loathsomeness of the mundane is its flaw, but there is variegatedness in the Transcendental Reality devoid of such a blemish.

There is no mutual distinction between Krishna and His Body. The materially conditioned soul and his body are separate elements; in the Intrinsic Transcendental Form there is not the estrangement of body and embodied, limbs and body, nature and its possessor—this difference is to be found only in the materially conditioned soul. Although Krishna is the owner of His limbs, each of His limbs are also Krishna in full; all His Transcendental Faculties are present in each of His limbs. Therefore, He is the Indivisible, Complete Transcendental Truth.

The spirit soul or jivatma, and Krishna—both are spiritual and thus of the same category. Yet the difference between the two is that all the Transcendental qualities are present in the individual soul in an atomic proportion, and present in Krishna infinitely. When the jiva attains to his divine form, those qualities become openly revealed in atomic form. By the Grace of Krishna, when the Power of the Transcendental Hladini or Ecstasy Potency makes its descent in the heart of the soul, he attains to a perfection resembling the Infinite; nonetheless, Krishna retains certain unique Qualities that make Him worshippable by all. Those fourfold Qualities are not manifest in the Lord of Vaikuntha or the Purusavatara Expansions; they are also absent in the gods headed by Girisa (Lord Siva), not to mention the jiva. [32]

 

Verse 33

advaitam acyutam anadim anantarupam
adyam purana-purusam navayauvanan ca
vedesu durllabham adurllabham atmabhaktau
govindam adi purusam tam aham bhajami [33]

Translation:
I adore that Primeval Lord Govinda,
     who is unapproachable by even the Vedas,
yet attainable by the soul's Devotion;
     He is—One without a Second, the Infallible,
Beginningless and Endless; He is the Beginning;
     and despite being the oldest Personality
He is the Beautiful Eternally Adolescent Male. [33]

Purport: Advaita means the One without a second Indivisible Truth; although the effulgence of the infinite Brahman emanates from Him, and although He expands Himself in His Portion of Paramatman, He is nonetheless Indivisible. Acyuta means that although He expands Himself as myriads of Avataras that are His Plenary Portions, and although infinite jivas emanate from Him as separated particles. He nonetheless remains as the Supreme Whole.

Despite manifesting His Pastimes beginning with His Birth, He is nonetheless anadi, beginningless. Despite withdrawing His manifest Pastimes, He is ananta, endless. Despite being beginningless, He takes Birth (adya) in His Advent Pastimes. And although He is in fact the Eternal Personality, He is nonetheless filled with Eternally Fresh Youthfulness.

The underlying purport here is that although He possesses many types of contradictory qualities, they are all harmonised in every respect by His inconceivable Potency. Such is the Divine Nature, or in other words, the clear distinction of the Divine from the mundane.

His beautiful triple-curved feature, holding the flute, is forever imbued with pristine youthfulness—He is completely transcendental to the unwholesomeness of the limited time and space that is present in the mundane sphere. He is ever refulgent in His Divine Abode in the pure present tense devoid of past and future. The estrangement between an object and its qualities that is found in the fluctuating mundane plane is completely absent in the Divine Realm. Therefore, all the qualities that seem to be contradictory in the estimation of a conception crippled by mundane time and space are ever harmoniously and charmingly resplendent in the Spiritual World.

How can the jiva experience such a sublime existence? The mundane perceptual faculty of the jiva is always contaminated by the imperfection of time and space, and so he is helpless to abandon his mundane conception. If the perceptual faculty does not approach transcendental realization, what faculty can ever approach it?

In reply, Brahma says that the Divine Realm is unapproachable by the Vedas; the basis of the Vedas is sound, and sound is a product of material nature. Thus, the Vedas cannot directly show us the supramundane Goloka. Only when the Vedas are infused with the Divine Potency can they somewhat indicate that Realm. Still, every jiva can receive the revelation of Goloka when that same Divine Potency influences them with Divine Cognition (Samvit) as a result of the concentrated essence of the Potency of Divine Ecstasy (Hladini-sakti-sara) (which is the awakening of the current of Devotion in the soul).

The Ecstatic current of Devotion is unlimited; it is the substance of Pure Divine Consciousness. Such Perception is the heart of Devotion: without asserting itself separately as any form of 'knowledge,' it is the direct symptom of Exclusive Devotion; and it is this that reveals the Realm Df Goloka. [33]

 

Verse 34

panthas tu koti-sata-vatsara-sampragamyo
vayor athapi manaso munipungavanam
so 'py asti yat-prapadasimny avicintya-tattve
govindam adi purusam tam aham bhajami [34]

Translation:
The yogis tread the path
     of strictly controlling the life-breath,
or the greatest sages tread the path
     of sharpening their perceptions
by assiduous rejection of the non-real,
     in quest of the non-differentiative Brahman;
they all aspire to reach that Supramundane Truth
     beyond the worldly intellect; and after trying
for billions of years, they may reach
     only the boundary of His Lotus Feet—
it is that Primeval Lord Govinda who I do worship. [34]

Purport: The nectarine relish of Pure Devotion is—the attainment of the Lotus Feet of Govinda. The 'oneness with God' attained by the Astanga-yogis after billions of years of meditation, and the self-dissolution in the nondifferentiative Brahman in the form of contemplation on the indifferent that the great monist sages finally attain after sitting for a similar period and rejecting Mayik elements one by one, saying, 'This is not it, this is not it' in their philosophizing on the distinction between matter and spirit—all these attempts are only in the region of the outer area surrounding Krishna's Lotus Feet—not Krishna's Lotus Feet proper.

The underlying point is that kaivalya and brahmalaya—becoming one with the Absolute and ultimate dissolution in the Absolute—are situated at a region midway between the mundane plane and the Divine Realm, since without crossing beyond these two states, the variegatedness of the Divine Realm is indiscernible. All such positions are nothing more than the absence of the sorrow in mundane relativity by a process of elimination, but not happiness. Even if any measure of 'happiness' is professed in that state of sorrowlessness, it will be most meagre and insignificant. Merely to dissipate the mundane situation is not enough; actual attainment is alone the establishment of the jiva's supramundane situation. This can be attained only by the Grace of Divinity Personified in Devotion, and never by the path of tasteless and tortuous mental speculation. [34]

 

Verse 35

eko 'py asau racyitum jagadanda-kotim
yac-chaktir asti jagadandacaya yad antah
andantara-stha-paramanucayantara-stham
govindam adi purusam tam aham bhajami [35]

Translation:
He—the One Truth, both Potency and Potent—
     His Potency in creating billions of universes
is not separate from Him;
     every universe is within Him, yet simultaneously
He is situated within every atom in complete Form.
     Such is the Primeval Lord Govinda who I do worship. [35]

Purport: Clearly distinct from the mundane conception, there is the Superior Element of Transcendence or Cit present within Krishna. By His sweet will, He creates infinite universes with His inconceivable Potency. The entire world is a transformation of His Potency. Still, His location is beyond the jurisdiction of this world; all worlds, both spiritual and mundane, are situated within Him, and at the same time He, in His full Form, is situated within not only every universe but within every atom of every universe.

Omnipresence is only a localized aspect of His Almighty Majesty. Although He is all-pervading, He nonetheless exists always and everywhere in His full-fledged Form of the most charming feature in medium (humanlike) proportions', and this is His Supramundane, Transcendental Lordship. By this consideration, the full-fledged Theistic Axiom of Simultaneous Inconceivable Oneness and Distinction is favoured, and the contaminating viewpoint of the Mayavada and allied impersonalistic doctrines is summarily disproved. [35]

 

Verse 36

yad-bhava-bhavita-dhiyo manujas tathaiva
samprapya rupa-mahimasana-yana-bhusah
suktair yam eva nigama-prathitaih stuvanti
govindam adi purusam tam aham bhajami [36]

Translation:
I worship the Primeval Lord Govinda
     for whom the hearts of mankind melt in Love.
Those persons attain the glory of their beauty,
     their seats, conveyances and ornaments;
and they sing His Glories by the Mantra Hymns
     of the Vedas. [36]

Purport: In the Philosophy of Rasa or the pure heart's disposition, the Devotional Conception may be of five types: Santa, Dasya, Sakhya, Vatsalya and Srhgara (Peacefulness, Servitude, Fraternity, Parenthood and Consorthood). Adopting their particular disposition, the devotees render their delegated Service to the appropriate Form of Krishna, and ultimately attain to their befitting destination. According to their particular Rasa, they attain to their divine form, their befitting glories, the appropriate seat in the form of the holy place of their service or worship, the appropriate conveyance and the ornaments of divine qualities that enhance their personal beauty.

Those who are eligible for Santa-rasa attain the places of peace that are the Abodes of Brahman and Paramatman; those who are eligible for Dasya-rasa attain the majestic Vaikuntha-dhama; and those eligible for pure Sakhya-, Vatsalya- and Madhura-rasa reach Goloka-dhama, above Vaikuntha. In their particular destination, each gains the ingredients and paraphernalia appropriate to their Rasa and sing the Holy Hymns that are directed by the Vedas. In certain passages, the Vedas take refuge in the Divine Potency and describe (reveal) the Holy Pastimes of the Supreme Lord; correspondingly, the fully liberated pure devotees go on singing the Glories of His Pastimes, serving Him by the various established spiritual methods (kirttana, etc.), taking refuge in the Divine Potency. [36]

 

Verse 37

ananda-cinmaya-rasa-pratibhavitabhis-
tabhir ya eva nija-rupatya kalabhih
goloka eva nivasaty akhilatma-bhuto
govindam adi purusam tam aham bhajami [37]

Translation:
He eternally resides in His Holy Abode of Goloka
    with His Transcendental Second Nature,
the Own Self of His Ecstasy Potency
    replete with the sixty-four sublime arts—Sri Radha
and Her Various Personal Plenary Expansions,
    Her Lady Companions, whose hearts are filled
with the Supreme Rasa, the Joy of Divine Love;
    that Primeval Lord Govinda—
the life and soul of His beloved—do I adore. [37]

Purport: The Absolute, despite being One as Potency and Potent, eternally presides by His Ecstasy Potency in two separate Forms—Radha and Krishna. Inconceivable Amorous Consorthood is ever-present in both that Ecstasy (Hladini) and Divinity (Krishna). Vibhava, or the cause of the Experience of that Rasa or Ecstatic Principle, is divided into two: alambana or the basis, and uddipana or the stimulation. Of the two, alambana is further divided into two: asraya, or the Repository of Love, and visaya, or the Object to whom that Love is directed. The asraya is Sri Radhika Herself, along with Her Various Personal Plenary Expansions; and the visaya is Sri Krishna Himself. Krishna is Govinda, the Lord of Goloka. The Repository of Deep Love in that Rasa is embodied in the Gopls. It is with Them that Krishna enjoys His Eternal Pastimes in Goloka.

The expression nija-rupataya indicates 'along with all the Plenary Expansions, Charms, or Arts manifest by the Current of the Ecstasy Potency'; those Arts are sixty-four in number: nrtyam, gitam, vadyam, natyam, alekhyam, visesaka-cchedyam, tandula-kusuma-vani-vikarah, puspastaranam, dasana-vasananga-ragah, mani-bhumika-karmman, sayya-racanam, udaka-vadyam, udaka-ghatah, citrayogah, malya-granthana-vikalpah, sekharapida-yojanam, nepathya-yogah, karna-patra-bhangah, gandha-yuktih, bhusana-yojanam, aindra-jalam, kaucumara-yogah, hasta-laghavam, citra-sakapupa-bhaksya-vikara-kriyah, panaka-rasa-ragasava-yojanam, suci-vapa-karmman, sutra-krida, prahelika, prati-mala, durvvacaka-yogah, pustaka-vacanam, natikakhayika-darsanam, kavya-samasya-puranam, pattika-vetra-bana-vikalpah, tarku-karmman, taksanam, vastu-vidya, raupya-ratna-pariksa, dhatuvadah, mani-raga-jnanam, akara-jnanam, vrksayurvveda-yogah, mesa-kukkuta-savaka-yuddha-vidhi, suka-sarika-pralapanam, utsadanam, kesa-marjjana-kausalam, aksara-mustika-kathanam, mlecchita-kutarka-vikalpah, desa-bhasa-jnanam, puspa-sakatika-nimitta-jnanam, yantra-matrka, dharana-matrka, sam-patyam, manasi-kavya-kriyah, kriya-vikalpah, chalitaka-yogah, abhidhana-kosa-cchanda-jnanam, vastra-gopanam, dyuta-visesam, akarsa-krida, balaka-kridanakam, vai-nayiki-vidya, vaijayiki-vidya and vaitaliki-vidya.

All these Teachings are Divinely Personified and eternally manifest as the ingredients of Rasa in Goloka; and in the world, by the Divine Potency Yogamaya, they have been auspiciously manifest in the Pastimes of Vraja. For this reason, Sri Rupa has stated, sadanantaih prakasaih svair lilabhis ca sa divyati, tatraikena prakasena kadacij jagad antare, sahaiva svaparivarair janmadi kurute harih; krsna-bhavanusarena lilakhya saktir eva sa, tesam parikaranan ca tam tam bhavam vibhavayet; prapanca-gocaratvena sa lila prakata smrta, anyas tv aprakata bhanti tadrsyas tad agocarah; tatra prakata-lilayam eva syatam gamagamau, gokule mathurayan ca dvarakayan ca sarnginah; yas tatra tatraprakatas tatra tatraiva santi tah. This means that in Goloka, Krishna is ever-beautifully resplendent with His infinite Pastimes; sometimes there are variations in the manifestation of those Pastimes in the mundane world. The Supreme Lord Sri Hari reveals the Pastimes of His Advent, etc., in His family. According to His sweet will, the Lila Potency also infuses the hearts of His Personal Associates with the Devotional dispositions appropriate to their Service. All the Pastimes that are visible to the world are manifest Pastimes, while those Pastimes that are invisible to the world are unmanifest by remaining in Goloka. In His manifest Pastimes, Krishna frequents Gokula, Mathura and Dvaraka. All the Pastimes that are not manifest in those three places remain manifest in the Divine Abode, the original location of Vrndavana.

All these conclusions inform us that intrinsically there is no distinction between the manifest and unmanifest Pastimes. In his commentary of this sloka and in his commentary of Ujjvala-nilamani and in Krishna-sandarbha and other exalted works our most revered Acaryya Sri Jiva Goswami has stated that Krishna's manifest Pastimes are conducted by Yogamaya; because those Pastimes are associated with material nature, some Mayik or worldly traits are apparent in them, which can in no way be present in the intrinsic Transcendental Pastimes. For example, the slaying of demons, paramour relationships, birth, and so on. The Gopis are of Sri Krishna's Personal Potency, so they are His own without exception; how can they be considered to be the wives of others? So the paramour affairs of the Pastimes manifest on Earth, in which they are considered to be others' wives, are only a mundane inflection of the transcendental reality.

When we can have some insight into the deep purport of the line of thought in these explanations of Sri Jiva Goswamipada, no room for any doubt about the truth can remain in our hearts. Sri Jiva Goswamipada is our Tattvacaryya, Divine Guide in Transcendental Truth—his representation is always strictly in conformity with the line of Sri Rupa-Sanatana; besides, in his internal Divine identity, he is a particular Manjari. So all Transcendental Truths are fully known to him. Without understanding the gist of his line of thought, some persons have speculated and concocted their own interpretation of his words, ushering in a tirade of fruitless controversy.

According to Sri Rupa and Sri Sanatana, unmanifest and manifest Pastimes are identical, with the only exception that the former is revealed beyond the material world while the latter is revealed within it. In the revelation beyond this world, there is absolute purity in regard to the seer and the seen. When by great fortune one receives the Grace of Krishna, and is thus able to completely sever his relationship with the mundane and enter into the Transcendental World—and further, if he attains to the perfection of tasting the variegatedness of Spiritual Rasa during his practising Spiritual life—such a person will be able to see and taste the complete Divine Pastimes of Goloka. Such a blessed recipient is rare; and one who despite being present in the material world has through his perfection in Devotion gained the Grace of Krishna and thus attained to experience of the Spiritual Rasa will be able to see those Goloka Pastimes in the Gokula Pastimes manifest in this earthly plane.

There is a definite comparative distinction between these two classes of devotees; until the attainment of vastu-siddhi,* the ability to have the darsana (vision) of Goloka Pastimes is always deterred by some mundane obstruction. Again, it must be admitted that there are different gradations of the darsana of Goloka in proportion to one's comparative progress in svarupa-siddhi, which determines one's stage of svarupa-darsana or vision of the Reality.

*Vastu-siddhi and svarupa-siddhi—vide pages 10-11.

Those who are very tightly bound by the chains of illusion have no eyes of Devotion; of such persons, some see everything in the variegatedness of the illusory world, and others, taking shelter of non-theistic knowledge, are aspirants of suicidal ultimate dissolution. Even if they are able to see the manifest Pastimes of the Lord, nothing more than mundane connotations devoid of any relationship with the unmanifest Pastimes appear in their minds. So in this way, the darsana of Goloka is attainable according to one's eligibility.

The fine point here is that as Goloka is pure Truth, Gokula is similarly pure and completely devoid of impurity; however, by the Divine Cit Potency Yogamaya, Gokula is manifest in the mundane world. In either the manifest or unmanifest affairs of that plane there is not the slightest trace of contamination, unwholesomeness or imperfection as found in the limited world; only according to the varying eligibility of the jivas viewing them do they appear with certain variations. Contamination, unwholesomeness, superfluity, misunderstanding, ignorance, impurity, falsity, lowliness, grossness—all these are present in the mundane vision of the viewing jivas' eyes, intellect, mind and ego. They are not inherent in the observable object. The more one is free from those particular stigmas, the more he will be capable of having the vision of the Transcendental Truth.

The Truth that is revealed in the sastra or Holy Scriptures is completely devoid of contamination; the purity or impurity of the realizations of the different viewers are dependent on their individual qualifications. All the above-mentioned sixty-four arts exist in Goloka in their original pure form, devoid of any trace of mundanity. The qualification of purity of the deliberator on these matters will determine whether he sees any connotation of unwholesomeness, lowliness or grossness in them.

According to Sri Rupa and Sri Sanatana, whatever types of Pastimes are manifest in Gokula, all are in Goloka intrinsically and devoid of any scent of mundanity. So by that consideration, parakiya-bhava or the mode of paramour relationship must certainly also be in Goloka, in a kind of inconceivably pure posing. Everything that is manifest by Yogamaya is pure; when paramourship is arranged by Yogamaya, its roots in pure Absolute Reality are indicated. Let us consider the constitution of that pure Absolute Reality.

Sri Rupa has written, purvvokta-dhirodattadi-caturbhedasya tasya tu, patis copapatis ceti prabhedav iha visrutau; tatra patih sa kanyayah yah panigrahako bhavet, ragenol-langhayan dharmmam parakiyabalarthina, tadiya-prema-sarvvasvam budhair upapatih smrtah; laghutvam atra yat proktam tat tu prakrta-nayake, na krsne rasa-niryyasa-svadartham avatarini. Tatra nayika-bheda-vicarah,—nasau natye-rase mukhye yat parodha nigadyate, tat tu syat prakrta-ksudra-nayikady anusaratah. Sri Jiva has deeply considered all these slokas and substantiated that as the Pastimes of Birth, etc., are Pastimes of Divine Delusion (vibhrama-vilasa) attributed to Yogamaya, the same is applicable in the case of the Paramour Conception. Tathapi patih pura-vanitanam dvitiyo vraja-vanitanam—by this statement he has revealed his deep purport. In the conclusions established by Sri Rupa and Sri Sanatana, the Pastimes of Divine Delusion arranged by Yogamaya have also been admitted. Yet when Sri Jiva Goswami has determined Goloka and Gokula to be identical, it cannot but be admitted that the basis of the Gokula Pastimes is the fundamental Transcendental Reality.

One who accepts the hand of a maiden according to the injunction of marriage is a husband, while one who, thinking his love to be all-in-all, crosses the injunctions of religious duty in order to gain another's wife, is a paramour. In Goloka there is no religious obligation binding anyone to the injunction of marriage, so no husbandhood of that order is to be found there either; on the other hand, since there can be no marriage with others for the Gopis, who are in that way constitutionally Krishna's own, there is no question of them becoming lady paramours. There, the concepts of wedded and paramour (svakiya-parakiya) cannot exist independently of one another. In Krishna's Pastimes manifest in the material world, the binding religious code of marriage is present; Krishna is transcendental to that religious duty. So the circle of Divine Amorous Affairs is thus an arrangement of Yogamaya. Crossing that religious obligation, Krishna enjoyed the taste of paramourship. These Pastimes of 'overstepping morality' manifest by Yogamaya are seen in the world by eyes enveloped in mundanity; in actuality there is no trace of such pettiness or superficiality in the Pastimes of Krishna at all.

Paraklya-rasa is the essence of all Rasas; to deny its existence in Goloka would be tantamount to sacrilege. The Superexcellent, Transcendental Ecstatic Experience cannot be absent in the Superexcellent Goloka. Krishna, the Origin of all Avataras, tastes that in a certain way in Goloka, and He tastes that in a certain way in Gokula. So despite the immoral connotation seen in paramourship by the mundane eye, paramourship nonetheless has its peculiar wholesome existence in Goloka also. From the Scriptural statements “atmaramo 'py ariramat,” “atmany avaruddha-sauratah,” “reme vrajasundaribhir yatharbhakah svapratibimba-vibhramah” etc., it is evident that self-satisfaction is Krishna's Personal Nature.

In the Majestic Area of the Transcendental World, He manifests His Personal Potency as Laksmi and consorts with Her in the mood of wedlock. Since this mood of ownership in wedlock (svakiya-buddhi) predominates there, the scope of Rasa naturally and charmingly goes up to Servitude or Dasya-rasa. But in Goloka, Krishna expands His Personal Potency into millions of Gopis and He consorts with Them, forgetting all ownership. The extreme rarity of the paramour relationship is absent in the sentiment of marriage, so naturally the Gopis since time immemorial are endowed with the innate sentiment of being “others' wives” or female paramours; and Krishna Himself also reciprocates by accepting the sentiment of paramourship, and with the help of His beloved companion the flute. He enjoys Lila or Pastimes such as the Rasa Dance.

Goloka is eternally perfect—the Seat of Transcendental Ecstasy or Rasa—transcendental to any mundane inflection; so in that Realm, the Divine current of the sentiment of Paramourship flows in its perfection. Further, the way of Majesty (aisvaryya) is such that the Parental sentiment (Vatsalya-rasa) directed to the Origin of all Incarnations is also absent in Vaikuntha. Yet in the Paramount Plane of Divine Consorthood—the Parama-madhuryya-maya Goloka—there is only the original mood of that sentiment. There, Nanda and Yasoda are personally present, but there is no direct occurence of Krishna's birth; without the function of giving birth to a son, the egos of fatherhood and motherhood of Nanda and YaSoda are their hearts' sentiments only. Jayati jana-nivaso devaki-janmavadah. For the perfection of the Rasa that sentiment is eternal. Similarly in Srngara-rasa also, since only the sentiment of male and female paramourship is eternal, absolutely no stigma or any type of Scriptural violation can be present there. When the Goloka Principle is manifest in Vraja, the only difference is that these two sentiments appear to possess some grossness in the mundane vision. The parental sentiment of Nanda and Yasoda appears in a more 'earthly' way, in the form of the Pastimes of Krishna's birth, etc. The consorthood sentiment of the Gopls as “others' wives” appears in a more 'earthly' way in the form of their marriages to Abhimanyu and Govarddhana, etc.

In reality, in neither Goloka nor Gokula is there any separate existence of lordship or husbandhood over the Gopis. Therefore the Scriptures have said: na jatu vraja-devinam patibhih saha sangamah: there is never sexual union of the Gopis with their husbands. So the Rasatattvacaryya, the Divine Guide in the Science of Transcendental Rasa, Sri Rupa, has written that the Hero of Ujjvala-rasa (Consorthood) is of two types—patis copapatis ceti prabhedav iha visrutau, iti—husband and paramour.

In his commentary Sri Jiva has admitted the Husbandhood of Krishna in Dvaraka and Vaikuntha, etc., and the Eternal Paramourship of Krishna in Goloka and Gokula, in the statement patih pura-vanitanam dvitiyo vraja-vanitanam. In the Lord of Goloka, Golokanatha, and in the Lord of Gokula, Gokulanatha, the expression of paramourship is found in its complete form. Krishna's overstepping (langhana) of His Own Nature (dharmma) of Self-satisfaction (atmaramatva) is the only cause of His apparently overstepping religious duty (dharmma-langhana) through His Passion for Paramourship. That Paramourship is the root cause of the Gopis' corresponding eternal sentiment of their being 'wives of others.'

Although in reality there are no husbands of separate interest for the Gopis at all, their sentiment causes them to have the nature of others' wives. Thus ragenollanghayan dharmmam—'love above law,' and all such symptoms are eternally present in the Divine Plane of Love. In Vraja, a general outline of this can be appreciated to some degree by the worldly eye.

Thus in Goloka the Rasas of wedlock and paramourship are inconceivably one and distinct—neither their distinction nor their similarity can be admitted. The essence of Paramourship Sentiment denies Ownership and the essence of Ownership denies Paramourship in the Lord's Consorthood with His Personal Divine Potency, yet the denial of Paramourship Sentiment in His Consorthood with His Personal Divine Potency means Consorthood beyond the religious injunction of marriage. Accommodating the variegatedness of both Concepts, Their Consummation in the Ultimate Singular Rasa or Divine Ecstatic Relationship is ever gloriously refulgent there in Goloka. Indeed, the same is true for Gokula; some other inference is fostered by the mundane observers only. In Govinda, the Hero of the Pastimes of Goloka, husbandhood and paramourship beyond both religiosity or irreligiosity preside in their pristine glory; and although the same is true for the Hero of Gokula, a varied connotation appears by the Agency of Yogamaya.

If it is suggested that whatever Yogamaya manifests is Divine Truth created by Divine Potency so even the idea of adultery is to be taken as an actual reality, it must be replied that in the experience of the Spiritual Rasa, the idea of such a sentiment can exist, and that too without any flaw since it is not without foundation; it is based on the presence of a correspondingly Perfect Sentiment in its Origin of Fundamental Truth; but the ugly connotation of the mundane is a contaminated conception that can never stand in the plane of pure existence.

Actually, Sri Jiva Goswami has presented the correct conclusion, while the opposing conclusion also carries the truth in an inconceivable way; to engage in fruitless empirical wrangling for the case of wedlock or paramour-ship is a baseless endeavour of so much verbiage. One who, with an unprejudiced view, thoroughly examines the commentaries of Sri Jiva Goswami and all the opposing commentaries cannot but come to the end of all arguments born of doubts.

Whatever is spoken by the pure Vaisnava is truth, utterly free from any form of prejudice, yet there is the element of mystery in their controversies. Those whose intellects are possessed by illusion and mundanity, in their paucity of pure Vaisnava qualification are unable to grasp the significance of the mysterious affectionate controversies among the pure Vaisnavas, and they thus ascribe to them the defect of wrangling and party spirit.

Gopinam tat-patinan ca. The conclusion given by Sri Sanatana Goswami in his commentary Vaisnava-tosani on this sloka from the five chapters of Srimad-Bhagavatam dealing with the Rasa-lila has been unhesitatingly embraced with the utmost reverence by the pure devotee Sri Visvanatha Cakravartti Thakur.

When we attempt to deliberate on the matters of Transcendental Pastimes of Places such as Goloka, we would be best advised to bear in mind a point that has been graciously taught by Sriman Mahaprabhu and the Goswamls: the Reality of the Supreme Absolute Truth is always variegated with Divine Attributes; that is, it is always transcendental to mundane attributes, and never unvariegated or nondifferentiative. The Beauty of Rasa in relationship with the Supreme Lord is manifest by its variegatedness, with four basic attributes known as vibhava (subject and object), anubhava (illuminating symptoms), sattvika (particular emotional symptoms) and vyabhicari (particular secondary transitory symptoms); such Rasa full of variegatedness is ever-present in Goloka and Vaikuntha.

By the Power of Yogamaya the Rasa of Goloka is manifest in this world for the benefit of the devotees, appearing as the Rasa of Vraja; whatever is seen in that Gokula-rasa must also appear graphically in Goloka-rasa. So different varieties in the Nature of the Male and Female Paramour, variegatedness in Rasa of those identities, the soil, water, rivers, mountains, gateways, groves and cows, etc.—all these ingredients of Gokula are correspondingly and intrinsically present in Goloka; only the mundane connotation ascribed to this Realm by persons of mundane conception is absent. According to the eligibility of the devotee, there are distinctly varied revelations in the variegated Pastimes of Vraja. To form a single criterion to determine which portions of those revelations may be illusory and which may be pure is difficult. The more the eyes of Devotion are anointed or adorned with the salve of Love, the more the Pure will gradually reveal itself. So there is no necessity of argument; argument does not enhance anyone's eligibility—the depth of the Plane of Goloka is of inconceivable subtleness. To try to conceive the inconceivable, like the futile pounding of empty grain-husk, can only come to nought. Therefore one must desist from the attempt of knowledge and attain realization by the devotional pursuit. Any pursuit that ultimately leads one to a nondifferentiative impression must be shunned in all respects.

The pure Rasa of Paramourship free from all mundane conception is extremely rarely attained. It is described in the Pastimes of Gokula, and it must be embraced and served by the devotees following the line of Divine Love, the Raganuga-bhaktas, and upon perfection they will attain to the higher fundamental Truth of Reality the Beautiful. That devotional service which aims at paramourship, but is performed by persons of mundane attitude, is repeatedly condemned as illicit, perverse anti-religion. Pained at seeing such hypocrisy rampant, our Tattvacaryya, Sri Jiva, was most eager to deliver his exposition. To embrace the essence of his delivery is in itself the quality of pure Vaisnavism. It is an offence, aparadha, to disrespect the Acaryya by attempting to establish an opposing doctrine. [37]

 

Verse 38

premanjana-cchurita-bhakti-vilocanena
santah sadaiva hrdayesu vilokayanti
yam syamasundaram acintya-guna-svarupam
govindam adi purusam tam aham bhajami [38]

Translation:
The sadhus, their eyes tinted with the unguent of Love,
     see within their hearts
that Syamasundar Krishna of inconceivable qualities;
     that Primeval Lord, Govinda, do I adore. [38]

Purport: The Form of Syamasundar is Krishna's inconceivable simultaneously personal and impersonal paradoxical Form. The sadhus or pure devotees see Him within their own hearts, in their trance of Devotion (Bhakti-samadhi). The Syama Form is not of the syama or black colour of this world, but it is the colour of the Transcendental variegatedness that bestows eternal Joy. It cannot be seen with mundane eyes. Bhaktiyogena manasi samyak pranihite 'male, apasyat purusam purnam etc.: if we study the nature of the pure samadhi of Vyasadeva, we will appreciate that the Intrinsic Form of Sri Krishna is the Whole Personality of Godhead, and He appears seated in the inner region of His devotee's heart of Devotional trance.

At the time of His Appearance in Vraja, everyone, both devotees and non-devotees, saw Him directly; but only the devotees adored Him—Krishna of the Holy Place of Vraja—as the priceless jewel of their hearts.

Now also, even without visually seeing him in that way, the devotees see Krishna in Vraja-dhama within their hearts saturated with Devotion. The jiva's eyes of Devotion are the eyes of his pure spiritual self. The pure vision of Krishna is attainable in proportion to the degree that those eyes are developed by the cultivation of Devotion. When devotion in practice (sadhana-bhakti) reaches the budding stage of Love (Bhava), by the power of Krishna's Grace the unguent that is Love is applied to the eyes of that developed devotee; then he can have the direct darsana of Krishna. The phrase 'within their hearts' means that Krishna is seen in proportion to the degree that His devotee's heart is purified by Devotional qualification.

The essential point is that the triple-curved Form of Syamasundar, the Supreme Dancer who plays the flute, is not imaginary; it is seen by the eye of unalloyed consciousness. [38]

 

Verse 39

ramadi-murttisu kalaniyamena tisthan
nanavataram akarod bhuvanesu kim tu
krsnah svayam samabhavat paramah puman yo
govindam adi purusam tam aham bhajami [39]

Translation:
The Lord has shown in the world many Avataras
     such as Rama, by expanding His Plenary Expansions
and Expansions of those Expansions anon;
     and He, Krishna, also came Personally—
that Primeval Lord Govinda, do I worship. [39]

Purport: His Expanded Descents or Avataras as Rama, etc., come down from Vaikuntha; and Krishna Himself, along with the Vraja-dhama of Goloka, graciously comes down to appear in this world. The deep purport herein is that Krishna Chaitanya, One with the Supreme Lord Krishna, also accepts His Advent in that Personal Appearance. [39]

 

Verse 40

yasya prabha prabhavato jagad-anda-koti-
kotisv asesa-vasudhadi-vibhuti-bhinnam
tad-brahma niskalam anantam asesa-bhutam
govindam adi purusam tam aham bhajami [40]

Translation:
I worship that Primeval Lord Govinda.
     Because His Power and Effulgence is the source
     of that which is described in the Upanisads
     as the nondifferentiated Brahman,
     being distinct from the domain of
     millions of planets and planes like Earth, etc.,
     it appears as the Indivisible, Infinite, Absolute Truth* [40]

*Vide purport of verse 34.

Purport: The aggregate universes created by Maya are as a quadrant of the Majesty of Govinda (ekapada-vibhuti) ; the nondifferentiated Brahman is a superior truth to that Mayik quadrant. Brahman is an effulgence situated as the outer wall of the Transcendental World which constitutes Govinda's triquadrantal Majesty (tripada-vibhuti). It is indivisible, that is, without expansion, therefore it appears, as stated (in the Upanisads), ekam evadvitiyam, as the one without a second. It is an element both infinite and undifferentiated. [40]

 

Verse 41

maya hi yasya jagad-anda-satani sute
traigunya-tad-visaya-veda-vitayamana
sattvavalambi-parasattva-visuddha-sattvam
govindam adi purusam tam aham bhajami [41]

Translation:
I worship that Primeval Lord Govinda,
     the All-good, Transcendental Pure Existence;
whose inferior potency is Maya, of the trimodal nature
     of sattva, rajah and tamoguna—the propagator
of that Vedic wisdom which pertains to the world. [41]

Purport: Creation pertains to rajoguna; following that is sustenance, which pertains to sattvaguna; and dissolution pertains to tamoguna. Sattva that is a mixture of the three gunas is mundane, whereas the sattva that is unmixed with rajah and tamoguna is supramundane and the Transcendental Truth of Eternal Existence. He whose Form abides in that Existence—He is visuddha-sattva, the Pure Truth which is devoid of Maya's influence, transcendental to the material world and devoid of the mundane qualities or gunas; He is Spiritual Joy Personified. Maya is the agent who has propagated the all-regulative Vedic knowledge that pertains to the three gunas (traigunya-visayaka-veda). [41]

 

Verse 42

ananda-cinmaya-rasatmataya manahsu
yah praninam pratiphalan smaratam upetya
lilayitena bhuvanani jayaty ajasram
govindam adi purusam tam aham bhajami [42]

Translation:
He whose Divine Ecstatic Form
     is reflected in the minds of those who remember Him,
as He perpetually conquers the world in His Play—
     that Primeval Lord Govinda do I adore. [42]

Purport: 'Those who remember Him' refers to persons who, having heard the advices of the true devotees or sadhus, recollect the Name, Form, Quality and Pastimes of that Eternal Lord of Love, the Cupid of cupids. Playful Krishna and His Abode appears in their hearts. Whatever opulence and sweetness may be found in this world is summarily conquered by that revelation of the Pastimes in the Holy Abode. [42]

 

Verse 43

goloka-namni nija-dhamni tale ca tasya
devi mahesa-hari-dhamasu tesu tesu
te te prabhava-nicaya vihitas ca yena
govindam adi purusam tam aham bhajami [43]

Translation:
First there is Devi-dhama, then Mahesa-dhama,
     and above Mahesa-dhama is Hari-dhama;
and above all is His own home, Goloka.
     He who has ordained the appropriate powers
pertaining to each and every one of those abodes—
     that Primeval Lord, Govinda, do I worship. [43]

Purport: Goloka-dhama is the Abode situated above all others. Seeing that above, from the point of his home ground, Brahma is describing all the successive realms. First is Devi-dhama, which refers to the material world; in this realm the fourteen planes headed by Satyaloka are situated. Above this is Siva-dhama; in that plane, a portion known as Mahakala-dhama is pervaded with darkness. On the other side of that portion of darkness is the immensely effulgent plane of Sadarivaloka. Above that is Hari-dhama or the Spiritual World, Vaikunthaloka.

The power of Devi-dhama as Maya's majesty, and the power of Siva-dhama as time and the aggregate of material elements, is present in those planes as the Power of the hazy aspect (abhasa) of the Lord's Plenary Expansion (Svamsa), reflected as separated particles (vibhinnamsa). But the Power of Hari-dhama is its Transcendental Majesty, and the Power of All-sweetness and charm of Goloka is the mainstay of all Majesties. All these powers in each of these abodes are ordained by the direct and indirect Might of Govinda. [43]

 

Verse 44

srsti-sthiti-pralaya-sadhana-saktir eka
chayeva yasya bhuvanani vibhartti durga
icchanurupam api yasya ca cestate sa
govindam adi purusam tam aham bhajami [44]

Translation:
The Intrinsic or Divine Potency's shadow is personified
     as the Maya potency who accomplishes
creation, sustenance and dissolution,
     and who is worshipped in the world as 'Durga';
by He whose wish she acts—
     that Primeval Lord, Govinda, do I worship. [44]

Purport: (The presiding deity of the aforementioned Devi-dhama is being described.) This world, where Brahma is situated and singing the Glories of the Lord of Goloka, is the world of fourteen planes, 'Devi-dhama,' of which the presiding goddess is 'Durga.' She has ten arms, representing the ten karmmas or purificatory rites. Her prowess as a heroine is indicated by her riding on a lion. She is the subduer of vice, represented in her punishing Mahisasura, the buffalo-demon. She is the mother of Karttika and Ganesa, indicating her to be the possessor of beauty and success, represented in her sons. She is positioned midway between the aspects of Laksmi and Saraswati who are the companions of worldly opulence and knowledge. For suppressing vice, she is the bearer of twenty weapons representing the manifold Vedic religious duties. She is adorned with, that is, she holds the snake, representing the beauty of time, the vanquisher. Durga possesses all these features.

Durga also possesses a durga. Durga means 'prison.' When the jivas, who have their origin in the marginal potency, become averse to Krishna, the prison in which they are interned is Durga's durga. The instrument of punishment in that prison is the wheel of karmma; her duty by the wish of Govinda is to fulfill the task of reforming the averse jivas by such corrective measures, a task that she executes perpetually. When the jivas have the fortune of attaining sadhu-sanga, the holy association of pure devotees, and their aversity is removed and they turn towards the Lord—the very same Durga, by the wish of Govinda, becomes the cause of their liberation.

So it is conducive to show the 'warden,' Durga, one's reformed favourable attitude, to satisfy her and gain her undeceiving grace. Wealth, successful agriculture, assurance of the health of one's family members, etc.—one should know all such benedictions as the deceptive grace of Durga. For the delusion of souls averse to Krishna, Durga manifests in the mundane world her ten forms known as Dasa-mahavidya showing their 'worldly psychic pastimes.'

The soul is a particle of consciousness. When he commits the offence of aversity to the Service of Krishna, he is pulled by Maya's attracting potency; as soon as he is thus distracted, Durga restricts him to a gross body of the five basic mundane elements, their attributes, and eleven senses, which is like a prisoner's uniform; then she hurls him into the wheel of karmma. Revolving within that cycle, the jiva experiences joy and sorrow, heaven and hell, and so on. Besides this, she gives him, within the gross body, a subtle body consisting of the mind, intelligence and ego. Upon leaving one gross body, the jiva, in that subtle body, takes shelter within another gross body. Until he is liberated he cannot leave his subtle body, which is composed of evil desires. When the subtle body is given up, he bathes in the waters of the Viraja river and goes to the Abode of Lord Hari.

Durga performs all these tasks by the will of Govinda. Vilajjamanaya yasya sthatum iksa-pathe 'muya, vimohita vikatthante mamaham iti durddhiyah. In this statement of Bhagavatam, Durga's relationship with the jivas averse to Krishna has been described. This is the Durga who is worshipped in the mundane world. But the Durga mentioned in the Mantra which is the outer covering of the Abode of the Lord—She is the Transcendental Maidservant of Krishna. The shadow-Durga executes the duties of the world as Her maidservant. Vide (Sri Jiva's Sanskrit) commentary on the third sloka. [44]

 

Verse 45

ksiram yatha dadhi vikara-visesa-yogat
sanjayate na hi tatah prthag asti hetoh
yah sambhutam api tatha samupaiti karyyad
govindam adi purusam tam aham bhajami [45]

Translation:
As milk becomes transformed
     into yoghurt by reacting with an added agent,
yet yoghurt is not separate from its origin—milk,
     similarly, for accomplishing a particular task.
He who assumes the nature of 'Sambhu'—
     that Primeval Lord, Govinda, do I worship. [45]

Purport: (The innate nature of the aforementioned Sambhu, the presiding deity of Mahesa-dhama, is being elucidated.) Sambhu is not 'another God' separate from Krishna. Those who hold such a biased view are blasphemers of the Supreme Lord. Sambhu's control is subject to the control of Govinda, and so They are actually nondifferent Truth. The symptom of Their nondifference is illustrated by the example that, as milk is transformed to assume the properties of yoghurt with the addition of an agent, similarly, although the Lord becomes transformed to assume another form, that form is dependent; that transformed aspect has no independence.

Tamoguna or the material quality of inertia, the quality of minuteness of the marginal potency, and a minute degree of a mixture of Divine Cognizance (Samvit) and Ecstasy (Hladini)—all these elements combined constitute a particular transformation. The form of the distant aspect of the Plenary Portion of the Supreme Lord that is amalgamated with this transformation constitutes the halo of the Divinity as the masculine generative organ Lord Sambhu form of Sadasiva; and from Sambhu, Rudradeva is manifest.

In the work of creation as the efficient cause in the form of the aggregate material elements, in the work of sustenance by vanquishing certain demons, and for the purpose of executing the entire work of annihilation—Govinda descends as the Gunavatara (Descent pertaining to one of the three qualities of material nature) in the entity of Sambhu, who is a separated portion endowed with the nature of a Plenary Portion. Sambhu's aspect as 'Lord of time' has been corroborated in the Scriptures, and the authoritative quotations have been cited in the (Sanskrit) commentary (of Sri Jiva).

The purport of such statements in the Srimad-Bhagavatam as vaisnavanam yatha sambhuh, etc., where Sambhu's glories as a Vaisnava are extolled is that Sambhu, by his own potency of time, and subordinate to the will of Govinda, unites with Durgadevi and accomplishes his tasks. In many Scriptures headed by the Tantras he teaches religious forms that are a ladder for the jivas of various qualifications to attain Bhakti or Devotion. By Govinda's sweet will, he (indirectly) protects and sustains Suddha-bhakti or Pure Devotion by preaching the doctrine of Mayavada (illusionism) and intellectual or imaginary fabrications of the Scriptures.

The fifty qualities of the jiva are present within Sambhu in copious proportions, and five more great qualities unattainable by the ordinary jivas are also found in him in partial proportion. So Sambhu cannot be categorized as a jiva; he is Lord of jivas (Isvara), although he partakes of the nature of a separated part (vibhinnamsa) of the Supreme Lord. [45]

 

Verse 46

diparccir eva hi dasantaram abhyupetya
dipayate vivrta-hetu-samana-dharmma
yas tadrg eva hi ca visnutaya vibhati
govindam adi purusam tam aham bhajami [46]

Translation:
As the flame of one original lamp,
     when transmitted to another,
burns separately as the expanded cause
     with the same nature of intensity,
so also. He who shines in (Visnu's) Dynamic Nature—
     that Primeval Lord, Govinda, do I worship. [46]

Purport: (Now, the presiding Deities of Hari-dhama, the Plenary Portions of the Lord who are known as Hari, Narayana, Visnu, etc., are being described.) Krishna's Vilasa-murtti (Plenary Form possessing generally identical Potency) is the Lord of Paravyoma (Vaikuntha), Narayana. Narayana's Expansion is the first Predominative Descent or Purusavatara (Karanodakasayi), that Purusavatara's Expansion is Garbhodakasayi and Garbhodakasayi's Expansion is Ksirodakasayi Visnu. The Lord's Name 'Visnu' indicates Him to be the Omniscient and the Omnipresent.

In this sloka, by elucidating the position of Ksirodakasayi, the Principle of the Plenary Expansion of the Plenary Expansion of the Lord is being elucidated. The Visnu Principle or Descent of sattva-guna is quite distinct from the Sambhu Principle of mixed Mayik qualities and connotations. The Intrinsic Form of Govinda—Visnu is also that Form; both are the Embodiment of Pure Existence. Visnu, the Manifest Cause, is of the same Nature as Govinda.

Because it is always adulterated to some degree by rajo-guna and tamoguna, the sattvaguna of the threefold material qualities or gunas is not pure. Brahma appears in rajoguna, and he is a separated portion (vibhinnamsa) possessing the influence of a Plenary Portion (Svamsa) ; and Sambhu appears in Maya's tamoguna, and he is similarly a separated portion possessing the influence of a Plenary Portion. They are separated portions because Maya's rajo- and tamoguna are so estranged from unalloyed spirituality that Brahma and Sambhu, who appear in those modes, are also greatly distanced from the Lord Himself (Svayam-rupa) or the Lord Himself showing a Varied Form (Tad ekatma).

Despite the sattvaguna of Maya being alloyed with the other gunas, gunavatara Visnu makes His Advent only in the unalloyed portion of sattvaguna—the portion of completely pure, Transcendental Existence. Thus Visnu is the full Plenary Portion Expansion (Svamsa-vilasa) and the Almighty Entity (Mahesvara-tattva); He is not connected with Maya, yet He is the Master of Maya. Visnu is the Agent of Govinda's Own Nature as the Cause (of all Expansions). All the Majestic Attributes of Govinda are present in His Vilasa-murtti Plenary Expansion Narayana, that is, sixty qualities are present in Narayana in full proportion. Therefore, although Visnu is a gunavatara, or a Descent in material nature, His Personality is not alloyed with the gunas or qualities of Maya as the personalities of Brahma and Siva are; the Advent of Narayana in the Form of Maha-Visnu, the Advent of Maha-Visnu in the Form of Garbhodakasayi, and Visnu's Advent as Ksirodasayi—exemplifies the Dynamic Nature of the Absolute. Visnu is the Godhead and the other two gunavataras and all the gods are entities subordinate to Him, their offices delegated by Him.

Govinda is the original or supreme 'lamp'; from His Vilasa-murtti all the Plenary or Svamsa Descents of Maha-Visnu, Garbhodakasayi, Ksirodakasayi and Rama, etc., shine resplendently as individual lamps in Their respective locations by the Transcendental Potency of Govinda. [46]*

*The Eternal Form of Krishna that is independent of any other Form is known as Svayam-rupa; as corroborated in Sri Brahma-samhita 5.1. That Form which is nondifferent from Svayam-rupa but manifests a different Form and Character is called Tad ekatma-rupa. Tad ekatma-rupa is of two types—Vilasa and Svamsa. When by the Play of Krishna's inconceivable Potency His generally similar Form appears in a different Form, it is called Vilasa. For example, the Vilasa Form of Govinda is Narayana, the Lord of Vaikuntha; and the Vilasa Form of the Lord of Vaikuntha is Vasudeva (of the first Quadruple Expansion). That Form which, as in the case of Vilasa, is nondifferent from Svayam-rupa yet exhibits less Power than the Vilasa Form, is called Svamsa. Examples are Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha, etc., the three Purusavataras headed by Maha-Visnu,§ the Lilavataras of Matsya, etc., the Manvantaravataras and the Yugavataras. When Janarddana (Krishna) allots His Potencies of Knowledge, Devotion, Creation, Service, Universal Sustenance, Gravitational Force and Discipline of miscreants, etc., and infuses and empowers specially selected Great Entities with those Potencies, they are known as Avesa or Saktyavesavataras. Examples are the four Kumaras (Knowledge), Narada (Devotion), Brahma (Creation), Ananta (Gravity), Prthu (Sustenance), Parasurama (Discipline), and Sesa of Vaikuntha (Service). In the tenth canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam (39th chapter), Akrura is mentioned as having had the darsana of Sesa, Narada, the Kumaras, etc., when immersing himself in the Yamuna for bath.

§Note: Maha-Visnu=Karanodakasayi Visnu=Karanarnavasayi Visnu; Garbhodasayi=Garbhodakasayi; Ksirodasayi=Ksirodakasayi.

This is the description of the three Forms of the Supreme Personality of Godhead called Svayam-rupa, Tad ekatma-rupa and Avesa.

The Forms known as Prakasa cannot be reckoned as different from the Lord since They do not differ in any respect from the Lord's Intrinsic Form. Thus when the one Form of the Lord appears simultaneously in many places (with the same Form, Qualities and Pastimes), that Form is called Prakasa; for example, Sri Krishna was observed (once by Narada) to be present in every Palace of Dvaraka. The tenth canto Bhagavatam sloka, citram hataitat, etc., is the evidence of this fact. Thus establishes the Prakasa Form of the Supreme Lord.

Sri Laghu-Bhagavatamrtam 1.1.12-22

Verse 47

yah karanarnava-jale bhajati sma yoga-
nidram ananta-jagad-anda-saroma-kupah
adhara-saktim avalambya param svamurttim
govindam adi purusam tam aham bhajami [47]

Translation:
With infinite universes in the Pores of His Body,
     He assumes His Supreme Figure called Sesa,
the reservoir of Almighty Power Personified;
     He who reclines on the Causal Ocean,
enjoying His Trance of Divine Sleep,
     that Primeval Lord, Govinda, do I worship. [47]

Purport: (Ananta, who takes the Form of the Couch of Maha-Visnu, is being described.) The Infinite Couch upon which Maha-Visnu reclines—that Infinite is the Avatara who is by Nature a servant of Krishna; He is known as 'Sesa. '[47]

 

Verse 48

yasyaika-nisvasita-kalam athavalambya
jivanti loma-bilaja jagad-anda-nathah
visnur mahan sa iha yasya kald-viseso
govindam adi purusam tam aham bhajami [48]

Translation:
The lifespans of Brahma and the gods
     of the universes born from the Pores
of the Divine Body of Maha-Visnu
     last for only one exhalation of Maha-Visnu;
And Maha-Visnu is the Portion of a Portion
     of that Primeval Lord, Govinda, who I do worship. [48]

Purport: The Almighty Majesty of the Entity of Visnu has been illustrated herein. [48]

 

Verse 49

bhasvan yathasma-sakalesu nijesu tejah
sviyam kiyat prakatayaty api yad-vad-atra
brahma ya esa jagad-anda-vidhana-kartta
govindam adi purusam tam aham bhajami [49]

Translation:
As the Sun, Suryya, manifests some of his light
     in the gems named after him as Suryya-kanta,
similarly, He by whom Brahma is empowered
     to create the entire material universe—
the Primeval Lord Govinda, do I worship. [49]

Purport: Generally there are two types of Brahmas. In certain millennia, when there is a qualified jiva present in the world, the Potency of the Lord enters that jiva who then takes the post and executes the universal creative duties of Brahma, For those millennia in which such an eligible jiva is not available, upon the liberation of the Brahma of the previous millennium Krishna delegates His own Potency to create the rajogunavatara of Brahma. In actuality, Brahma is superior to a general jiva, yet he is not directly the Divinity; and the Divinity is present to a greater degree within Sambhu, who has been described previously.

The underlying purport is that the fifty qualities of the general jiva are present in Brahma in a fuller measure than in the jiva, plus he possesses to a fractional degree five more qualities not found in the jivas. But those fifty qualities and the fractional five qualities are found in still greater proportions in Sambhu. [49]

 

Verse 50

yat-pada-pallava-yugam vinidhaya kumbha-
dvandve pranama-samaye sa ganadhirajah
vighnan vihantum alamasya jagat-trayasya
govindam adi purusam tam aham bhajami [50]

Translation:
For the power to crush the obstacles of the three worlds,
     He whose Lotus Feet Ganesa perpetually holds
upon the pair of nodes of his elephantine head—
     the Primeval Lord, Govinda, do I worship. [50]

Purport: Ganesa holds the power to destroy all obstacles, and he is worshippable by the appropriate persons accordingly. As the worshippable Brahman with attributes, his qualification has afforded him a position amongst the five principal gods. Ganesa holds the office of a god of delegated power. All his glory is granted by the Grace of Govinda. [50]

 

Verse 51

agnir-mahi-gaganam-ambu-marud-disas ca
kalas tathatma-manasiti jagat-trayani
yasmad bhavanti vibhavanti visanti yan ca
govindam adi purusam tam aham bhajami [51]

Translation:
Fire, earth, sky, water, air, space, time, soul, mind—
     the three worlds are created of these nine elements;
He from whom these elements are born, in whom they
     remain, and in whom they enter in the end—
that Primeval Lord, Govinda, do I worship. [51]

Purport: There is nothing more in the three worlds beyond the five elements, the directions (of space), time, the jiva and the mental element of mind, intelligence and ego that composes the subtle body of the conditioned soul. The karmmis or elevationists offer oblations for sacrifice into fire; mundaners know nothing beyond this world of directly perceivable nine elements. Regarding the self-delight (state atmarama) sought after by the jnanis or dry liberationists, the jiva himself is that joyful self. What is considered in Sankhya philosophy to be prakrti (nature) and atma (soul) fare included in the above elements.

The purport is that every element delineated by all types philosophers are included within these nine basic elects; and Sri Govinda is the repository of creation, sustenance and dissolution of all these elements. [51]

 

Verse 52

yac caksur esa savita sakala-grahanam
raja samasta-sura-murttir-asesa-tejah
yasyajnaya bhramati sambhrta-kala-cakro
govindam adi purusam cam aham bhajami [52]

Translation:
With unlimited brilliance and power,
     the Sun is the king of all the planets,
the resort of all the gods—
     the personified eye of the universe.
He upon whose order the Sun,
     mounting the wheel of time,
runs his perpetual orbit—
     that Primeval Lord, Govinda, do I worship. [52]

Purport: There are many followers of Vedic religiosity that worship the Sun as Brahman; the Sun-god Suryya is one of the hierarchy of the five principal gods.* There are also many that profess heat to be the cause of the world, and therefore designate the Sun, as the sole source of heat, to be the root cause of the world. Anyway, Suryya is the presiding deity of the aggregate worldly heat, light and power for one sphere, and thus a god of delegated power. On the order of the Supreme Lord Govinda, the Sun obediently executes his delegated service. [52]

*Five principal gods, or panca-devata: Suryya, Ganesa, Sakti, Siva and Visnu. This fivefold worship (pancopasana) is professed by worshippers whose devotion is motivated by liberation. It is not admitted in the school of Pure Vaisnavism where Visnu or Krishna (Govinda) is known to be the Supreme Lord. Vide pages vii, 155. Vide Jaiva-dharmma Chapter 4.

 

Verse 53

dharmmo 'tha papanicayah srutayas tapamsi
brahmadi-kita-patagavadhayas ca jivah
yad datta-matra-vibhava-prakata-prabhava
govindam adi purusam tam aham bhajami [53]

Translation:
I worship the Primeval Lord Govinda, by whose
     conferred power is manifest the potency in—religion,
irreligion or all types of sins, the Srutis, the penances and
     all beings from Brahma to the worm and insect. [53]

Purport: Dharmma, 'religion' or 'duty,' refers to varna-dharmma and asrama-dharmma or the socio-religious codes as given by the twenty books of Law (Smrti) whose origin is traced in the Vedas. Varna-dharmma is the fourfold division according to men's natures of brahmana, ksatriya, vaisya and sudra. Asrama-dharmma refers to the fourfold formal religious gradations of brahmacari, grhastha, vanaprastha and sannyasi for persons of the appropriate qualifications. All the codes of conduct for the human being have been delineated within these twofold dharmmas of varna and asrama.

'All kinds of sins' means the roots of sin—ignorance and gainful desire; and grave sins, less grave sins and general sins or mahapataka, anupataka, pataka, etc., that is, all types of illicit conduct. The Srutis refers to the Rg-, Sama-, Yajur- and Atharvva-veda along with the Upanisads which form the crest-jewels of the Vedas. 'The penances' refers to whatever practices are to be learned for the furtherance of righteousness or religion. In many instances very painful austerities called Panca-tapa, etc., are indicated (in pursuance of eightfold-yoga, or Brahman liberation).

All the above forms are within the purview of the cycle of mundane work or karmma of the conditioned souls who wander throughout 8,400,000 species of life, including gods, demons, humans, Nagas, Kinnaras and Gandharvvas, etc. They range unlimitedly from Brahma down to the insignificant insect. Each possess a certain potency giving them proficiency in certain functions, but those potencies are not axiomatic—they are only the manifestation of whatever might is sanctioned for them by Sri Govinda. [53]

 

Verse 54

yas tv indragopam athavendram aho svakarmma-
bandhanurupa-phala-bhajanam atanoti
karmmani nirddahati kim tu ca bhakti-bhajam
govindam adi purusam tam aham bhajami [54]

Translation:
Whether one may be the tiny insect 'Indragopa'
     or the great King of the gods, Lord Indra,
He impartially awards all souls on the path of karmma
     the fruits befitting their deeds;
yet it is so wonderful! He burns at the root
     all the karmma of the souls who adore Him—
I worship Him, that Primeval Lord Govinda. [54]

Purport: The Supreme Lord is impartial in awarding the conditioned souls the fruits of their karmma or mundane deeds; according to their previous actions He awards them their future engagements. But He gives His special Grace to His devotees. He purges out, by the fire of ordeal, all their righteous or unrighteous karmma along with its root, that is, the desire to perform karmma, and nescience.

Although karmma is beginningless, it is nonetheless destructible. Karmma is indestructible for those who act in the hope of enjoying the fruits of their actions; their vicious circle of karmma can never be terminated. Even the religious duty of sannyasa is a type of karmma befitting a certain religious status; in that practice, as long as the practitioner remains hankering for its fruit of liberation, his observance of sannyasa cannot please Krishna or gain His Grace. The sannyasis accrue the fruits of their karmma, and even when their actions become desireless to the extreme they attain the paltry fruit of self-satisfaction (atmaramata).

But those who are true devotees perpetually cultivate Divine Service to Krishna in a way pleasing to Him, totally abandoning all semblance of fleeting desires and independent attempts of jnana, karmma, etc. Krishna totally annihilates all their karmma, desires for karmma, and nescience. Despite His impartiality, Krishna's partiality to His devotees is a matter of marvel. [54]

 

Verse 55

yam krodha-kama-sahaja-pranayadi-bhiti-
vatsalya-moha-guru-gaurava-sevya-bhavaih
sancintya tasya sadrsim tanum apur ete
govindam adi purusam tam aham bhajami [55]

Translation:
Those who cultivate their thoughts of Him
     through anger, amour, natural friendship, fear,
parenthood, delusion, reverence and servitorship
     attain to bodies of a form and nature
appropriate to the mood of their meditation.
     I worship that Primeval Lord Govinda. [55]

Purport: Devotion is generally of two types: regulative and spontaneous, or Vaidhi and Ragatmika. Devotion of preliminary faith aroused by following the instructions of the Guru and the Scriptures is actuated by obligation to scriptural injunctions, and so devotional sentiment is always limited in that sphere. However, such regulative devotion becomes loving spontaneity when the devotee's attempts to please the Lord by his service gradually deepen. When Bhava or the budding stage of Divine Love is aroused, the devotee can become a recipient of Krishna's Grace. To attain this stage takes much time, and such an attempt through devotional service regulated by reverence and scriptural edicts is known as Vaidhi-bhakti.

Ragatmika-bhakti, Devotion based on the pure heart's sentiment or instinctive attachment, is superior. It bears fruits very swiftly and is the attractor of Krishna Himself. The various forms it takes are described in this sloka.

Santa-bhava or the heart's aptitude for Peacefulness in reverence, Dasya-bhava or the heart's aptitude for Servitude in submission, Sakhya-bhava or the heart's aptitude for Friendship in natural affection, Vatsalya-bhava or the heart's aptitude for Parenthood, and Madhura-bhava or the heart's aptitude for Amorous Love—these five are in the scope of Ragatmika-bhakti.

Despite being spontaneous impulses (ragatmika), anger, fear and delusion are not Devotion (Bhakti) because these are hostile sentiments unconducive to Devotion. Anger is seen in demons like Sisupala, fear is seen in demons like Kariisa, and delusion is found in the pandits of the Mayavadi school. They all respectively have the feelings of anger, fear, and complete self-forgetfulness in identifying themselves with the Brahman. But none of these sentiments are conducive to Devotion for the Lord, so none can be admitted to have the qualification of Devotion. On the other hand, although of the abovementioned five Rasas (of Santa, etc.), in the mood of Peacefulness or Santa there is a predominance of indifference—it is almost devoid of devotional sentiment—it is nonetheless reckoned as Devotion due its favourability, however slight. There is abundant devotional sentiment in the other four moods.

In accordance with the Lord's promise in Sri Gita to reciprocate the attitude of a soul's surrender—ye yatha mam prapadyante tams tathaiva bhajamy aham—those who foster the sentiments of anger, fear and delusion in relationship to the Lord attain to the swoon of sayujya-mukti or 'liberation by merging.' The adherents of Santa attain to forms conducive to absorption in Brahman and Paramatman. The adherents of Dasya and Sakhya attain to appropriate male or female forms according to their qualifications. The adherents of Vatsalya attain to forms appropriate for fatherly or motherly sentiments. And the adherents of Srngara attain to the pure forms of Gopis or spiritual milkmaids of Vraja. [55]

 

Verse 56

sriyah kantah kantah parama-purusah kalpataravo
druma bhumis cintamaniganamayi toyam amrtam
katha ganam natyam gamanam api vamsi priyasakhi
cid anandam jyotih param api tad asvadyam api ca
sa yatra ksirabdhih sravati surabhibhyas ca sumahan
nimesarddhakhyo va vrajati na hi yatrapi samayah
bhaje svetadvipam tam aham iha golokam iti yam
vidantas te santah ksiti-virala-carah katipaye [56]

Translation:
That place where the Divine Goddesses of Fortune
     are the Beloved,
and Krishna, the Supreme Male,
     is the only Lover;
all the trees are Divine wish-fulfilling trees,
     the soil is made of Transcendental Gems
and the water is nectar;
     where every word is a song,
every movement is dancing,
     the flute is the dearmost companion,
sunlight and moonlight are Divine Ecstasy,
     and all that be is Divine, and enjoyable;
where a great ocean of milk eternally flows
     from the udders of billions of Surabhi cows
and the Divine time is eternally present,
     never suffering the estrangement of past and future
for even a split second . . .
     that Supreme Transcendental Abode of Svetadvipa
do I adore.
     Practically no one in this world knows that place
but for only a few pure devotees—
     and they know it as Goloka. [56]

Purport: The place that is reached by the jivas through highest Loving Service is completely Transcendental. Despite that, it is never nondifferentiated or without attributes. The nondifferentiative plane of Brahman is attained by the jivas through the sentiments of anger, fear and delusion. But the devotees reach the Transcendental World of Paravyoma-Vaikuntha or above that, Goloka, according to their individual Rasa or pure Devotional heart's disposition.

In fact, that Supreme Holy Abode of Goloka is 'Svetadvlpa'—white or effulgent Island—on account of its extreme purity. Persons who attain to the ultimate Joy of perfection in Pure Devotion during their sojourn in this mundane world see the Plane of Svetadvlpa within Gokula-Vrndavana and Nabadwip in this world. They speak of it as 'Goloka.' There in Goloka, in all the beauty of Transcendental Variegatedness are found the Beloved, Lover, trees, vines, earth (mountains, rivers and forests), water, speech, movement, the flute-song, moon and sun, the enjoyed, enjoyment (the inconceivable wonders of the sixty-four arts), the cows, the nectarine flow of milk and the transcendental time of the eternal present.

Descriptions with the underlying conception of Goloka are found in many places in the Vedas and other Scriptures such as the Puranas, Tantras, etc. It is stated in the Chandogyopanisad, sa bruyad yavan va ayam akasas tavan eso 'ntar hrdaya akasa ubhe asmin dyav aprthivi antar eva samahite ubhav agnis ca vayus ca suryyacandramasav ubhau vidyun naksatrani yac casyehasti yac ca nasti sarvvam tad asmin samahitam iti.

The purport underlying this statement is that, as many facets of variegatedness are found in the mundane world, all these and much more—myriads of excellences—are found in Goloka. The variegatedness and excellences of Goloka are centralized and harmonious, whereas those of the mundane world are disjointed and unharmonious and thus the cause of mixed happiness and unhappiness. The harmonious variegatedness and excellences are pearl-white and full of Transcendental Ecstasy.

By dint of Suddha-bhakti-samadhi, the harmonious centralization of the pure heart filled with Divine Devotion, the Vedas Personified and saintly devotees practising Devotion revealed by the Vedas can actually see that Holy Abode when they look inwards toward the current of the pure consciousness that pervades their devoted, surrendered hearts. By the Power of Krishna's Grace, their minute cognitive faculties take on an infinite nature and they attain equal enjoyment with Krishna in the Dhama.

There is a deep meaning to the line param api tad asvadyam api ca. Param api indicates that 'Krishna is the Ultimate in the Infinite Expanse of Transcendental Ecstasy,' and tad asvadyam api means 'even His Enjoyable Truth.' The Glory of Radhika's Love, the nectarine sweetness of Krishna that Radhika experiences and the Joy that Radhika feels from that experience—when Krishna feels the need to taste (asvadyam) these three Heart's Sentiments, He becomes Golden—Gaura. That Golden quality of His—is His Manifest Ecstasy of Nectarine Service, and this is also eternally present in Svetadvlpa. [56]

 

Verse 57

athovaca mahavisnur bhagavantam prajapatim
brahman mahattva-vijnane prajasarge ca cen matih
panca-slokim imam vidyam vatsa dattam nibodha me [57]

Translation: Upon hearing these quintessential hymns of Brahma, the Supreme Lord Krishna said unto him, “O Brahman, if with knowledge of Transcendental Science you wish to create progeny, then, My dear one, hear the wisdom of these five slokas from Me.” [57]

Purport: The Names 'Krishna' and 'Govinda' express the Form, Qualities and Pastimes of the Lord, and when Brahma earnestly chanted those Names, the Lord was propitiated. The desire for creation was in Brahma's heart. Krishna then explained to Brahma how Transcendental Exclusive Devotion can be accomplished by a soul engaged in worldly occupations by combining his worldly activity with the desire to follow the order of the Lord:

“The Transcendental Science is Knowledge of the Supreme Divinity. If with such Knowledge you wish to create progeny, hear the Teachings of Bhakti that I shall impart to you in the next five slokas.” (That is, how to practise Bhakti by executing worldly duties in the form of following the Lord's order.) [57]

 

Verse 58

prabuddhe jnana-bhaktibhyam atmany ananda-cinmayi
udety anuttama bhaktir bhagavat-prema-laksana [58]

Translation: When transcendental experience awakens by means of Knowledge and Devotion, the highest Devotion symptomized by Love for the Supreme Lord, Sri Krishna, the Beloved of the soul, awakens in the devotee's heart. [58]

Purport: The meaning of actual 'Knowledge' or jnana is Sambandha-jnana—perspective of the correlation of the transcendental, the material, and Krishna. Here, psychic, mental or intellectual knowledge or impersonal Brahman liberation is not indicated because such knowledge is opposed to Devotion. Sambandha-jnana or Knowledge of the soul's Relativity in the Absolute constitutes the Teachings of the first seven of the Ten Fundamental Divine Principles known as Dasa-mula.

According to the Scriptures that expound Pure Devotion, the Principle of Abhidheya or means to the end is the cultivation of Divine Service for Krishna's Transcendental Pleasure by the practices of hearing, chanting, remembering, serving the Lotus Feet of the Lord, worshipping, praying, servitude, friendship and self-surrender. This is elaborately described in the Holy Book Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhuh.

By such Knowledge and Devotion, Devotion in Love Pivine is awakened and blooms in the heart of the devotee. This is the ultimate in Devotion, and the Objective of all Spiritual endeavour for the jiva (Prayojana). [58]

 

Verse 59

pramanais tat sadacarais tad abhyasair nirantaram
bodhayann atmanatmanam bhaktim apy uttamath labhet [59]

Translation: Supreme Devotion is attained by gradually increasing perception of one's intrinsic self through constant self-cultivation following authority, virtuous practices and practising spiritual life. [59]

Purport: 'Authority' refers to the Scriptures that teach us about the Supreme Personality of Godhead, such as the Vedas, Puranas, Srimad Bhagavad-Gita, etc. 'Virtuous practices' refers to the practices of the true devotee saints, and the practices inspired by the Divine Love in the hearts of the pure devotees who follow the Path of Love for the Lord. By 'practising spiritual life' it is meant that one should learn about the Dasa-mula or Ten Fundamental Divine Principles from the Scriptures, and after receiving as directed therein the Holy Name of the Lord—embodying His Name, Form, Qualities and Pastimes—one should go on with the constant practice of His Divine Service, taking the Name regularly every day.

It must be clearly understood that in this practising spiritual life, scriptural cultivation and saintly association (sadhu-sanga) are necessary. When virtuous practices are combined with the Service of the Name, the ten offences to the Holy Name can no longer endure. To faithfully follow the sadhus who hear and chant the Glories of the Name without any trace of offence is the true practising of spiritual life. In the heart of one who faithfully continues his practising spiritual life in this line, the Objective, which is Devotion in Divine Love, makes Her gracious appearance. [59]

 

Verse 60

yasyah sreyaskaram nasti yaya nirvrtim apnuyat
ya sadhayati mam eva bhaktim tam eva sadhayet [60]

Translation: Sadhana-bhakti or practising devotional life is the means to the Objective—Prema-bhakti, Devotion in Love. Of all that is auspicious, there is absolutely nothing beyond Prema-bhakti; She brings in Her retinue Divine Ecstatic Joy, and She can give Me to My devotee. [60]

Purport: There is no greater good for the jiva beyond Prema-bhakti. It is the Objective of all devotional practices, and the ultimate Transcendental Ecstasy of the soul. It is only by virtue of Prema-bhakti that one can attain the Lotus Feet of Krishna. One who cultivates his practising devotional life with deep longing and earnestness for that Objective will attain that treasure; others cannot. [60]

 

Verse 61

dharmman anyan parityajya mam ekam bhaja visvasan
yadrsi yadrsi sraddha siddhir bhavati tadrsi
kurvvan nirantaram karmma loko 'yam anuvarttate
tenaiva karmmana dhyayan mam param bhaktim icchati

Translation: Abandon all other types of religion and serve Me with resolve. One will attain perfection according to the nature of his faith. Perpetually pursuing worldly occupations or karmma, the people of the world remain in the world. Meditate upon Me through the execution of your particular work, and you will attain to Loving Devotion, tiie Supreme Transcendental Devotion. [61]

Purport: The dharmma—'religion,' 'nature' or 'function' of the character of Pure Devotion, Suddha-bhakti—is the actual Jaiva-dharmma or eternal nature and original function of the soul. As many other 'religions' may be found in the world, every one of them are superficial in comparison to the original function. The superficial dharmmas are numerous, including the cultivation of jnana or knowledge of Brahman aiming at nirvvana (cessation of embodied existence); the eightfold and allied forms of yoga aiming at 'becoming one' with the Supersoul; pious worldly works by the way of karmma-kanda aiming at mundane pleasures; jnana-yoga as a relative combination of karmma and jnana; and barren renunciation.

The Lord is saying, “Give up all these attempts and embrace the Religion of Bhakti—Devotion—which has its roots in sraddha—faith—and serve and adore Me. Exclusive faith in Me is 'resolve' (visvasa); that resolute faith gradually becomes more and more lucid, and from that develops nistha, ruci, asakti and bhava—firmness, taste, depth in taste, and heartfelt sentiment of Divine Love. Perfection is attained in proportion to the purity of one's faith.”

If the question is raised, “If in this way one is to be constantly engaged in pursuing perfection in Devotion, how will he maintain his body, and how will the world go on? And when society and one's body cease to function, how will a man pursue perfection in Devotion when he's dead?”—then in order to slash such a doubt, the Lord is saying, “The karmma or work that the people of this plane sustain the world by—execute that as a meditation and destroy the karmmic or exploitative nature of those actions, and establish their devotional quality.”

Man passes his life by engaging in three types of actions: bodily, mental and social. The manifold bodily activities include eating, sitting, walking, reclining, sleeping, evacuating, dressing, etc.; the mental activities include thought, remembrance, concentration, realization, feeling happiness and unhappiness, etc.; and the social activities include marriage, the relationship of ruler and subject, brotherhood, assemblies for performing sacrifice, public welfare works, family maintenance, receiving guests, customary formalities, offering due respect to others, etc.

When these actions are performed for the sake of one's own enjoyment, they are known as karmma-kanda when they are performed for an opportunity of attaining enlightenment, they are known as karmma-yoga or jnana-yoga; and when they are executed as functions conducive to the practising life of devotion, they are known as Gauna-bhakti-yoga or the indirect application of Devotion. But only action that is symptomized by pure worship is known as direct Devotion.

Thus the Lord is saying, “Your every act will be meditation upon Me when you give due time to practising direct Devotion whilst otherwise rendering indirect devotion in accordance with the formalities demanded by the world.” In this respect, despite acting in the world—'performing karmma'—the jiva does not become averse to the Service of the Lord by turning outward to mundane trappings.

This way of activity is the practice of turning inward; as it is stated in the Isopanisad, isavasyam idam sarvvam yat kin ca jagatyam jagat, tena tyaktena bhunjitha ma grdhah kasyacid dhanam. Our revered commentator has stated, tena isa-tyaktena visrstena. The purport is that whatever one accepts, when everything is accepted as one's fortune of receiving the Prasada or Grace of the Lord, then actions lose their quality of karmma and take on the quality of Bhakti. Therefore, the Isopanisad states, kurvvan eveha karmmani jijivisec chatam samah, evam tvayi nanyatheto 'sti na karmma lipyate nare: if one acts in this way, even if he lives for hundreds of years he cannot be daubed by karmma.

The liberationist or jnana-oriented interpretation of these two Mantras is 'renunciation of the fruits of work'; but from the standpoint of Bhakti, the purport is to gain the Grace or Prasada of the Lord by offering everything to Him. So worldly occupations are to be executed along with the meditation of remembering the worship of the Supreme Lord in Arccana-marga or the Path of due reverence for the Deity.

Now, Brahma has a desire in his heart for creation. If that desire is fulfilled along with the meditation of following the order of the Lord, by virtue of that action possessing the symptom of surrender to the Lord, it will be an indirect religious function favourable to the nourishment of and within the purview of Devotion. This is the reasonable way of the Lord's instruction to Brahma.

The jiva who has attained to Bhava or internal, heartfelt Devotion, is naturally indifferent to all but Krishna, and so such an instruction does not apply in his case. [61]

 

Verse 62

aham hi visvasya caracarasya
bijam pradhanam prakrtih pumams ca
mayahitam teja idam vibharsi
vidhe vidhehi tvam atho jaganti [62]

iti sri-brahma-samhitayam bhagavat-siddhanta-sangrahe
mula-sutrakhyah pancamo 'dhyayah

Translation: Hear Me, O Vidhe! I am the Seed—the Primal Principle of the world of moving and stationary beings; I am the elements, I am the predominated, I am the Predominator. The fiery spirit of Brahman that abides in you has been conferred unto you by Me; now, adopting that prowess, create the world of moving and stationary beings. [62]

Purport: Some philosophers conclude that the undifferentiated element of Brahman becomes transformed and takes on the appearance of having attributes in the form of this mundane world; or Maya becomes divided and becomes the mundane world, and undivided it is Brahman; or Brahman is the 'object' and the world is its 'reflection'; or the entire world is the jiva's illusion. Others think that by nature God is 'the one,' the soul is 'the one,' and although the universe or mundane world is 'the one principle,' it is eternally distinct in an independent manner; or God is the absolute 'specific,' and the relative, both spirit and matter, are the 'specified'—yet all are one truth. Others think that by dint of inconceivable potency the truth sometimes appears as one, sometimes as dual. Yet others conclude that the doctrine of an impotent 'one' is meaningless, so Brahman is replete with pure potency, and it is the eternally pure, one-without-a-second truth.”

All these theories have their origin in the Vedas, with support in the Vedanta-sutras. Although none of them can claim to expound the truth in every respect, each carry a certain degree of truth. They—not to mention the theories of Sankhya, Patanjala, Nyaya and Vaisesika that are all contradictory to the Vedic Teachings, and the theories such as Purvva-mimamsa, etc., that solely favour fruitive pursuits in conformity with a section of the Vedas—owe their existence to their superficial reliance upon the Vedanta.

(Thus, the Lord says to Brahma,) “You and your pure Divine Succession are to abandon all these theories and accept the Supreme Principle of Acintya-bhedabheda— Inconceivable Simultaneous Oneness and Distinction. Then you will be able to become a true devotee.”

The underlying gist of the Lord's words is, “The animate world is composed of jivas and the inanimate world is composed of matter. Of these, My Divine Potency (Para-sakti)—by its marginal power—has manifest the jivas; and my secondary potency (apara-sakti) has manifest the material world. I am the Seed of everything: in a Form nondifferent from each of those Potencies of Mine, I control them by the Potency of My Will. By various stages of transformations, those potencies have become Pradhana (the elements), Prakrti (the predominated) and Purusa (the Predominator). So although as the Potency Principle I am Pradhana, Prakrti and Purusa, as the Potent Principle I am eternally distinct from all those Potencies. Such simultaneous oneness and distinction has come into being by virtue of My inconceivable Potency.

“Therefore, embracing the Wisdom of the Correlation of the Inconceivably One and Distinct Entities of 'the soul,' 'the world' and 'Krishna,' let the attainment of Divine Love for Krishna by the Practice of Pure Devotion be the Eternal Divine Teaching handed down in your Divine Succession.” [62]

jivabhaya-prada vrttir jivasaya-prakasini
krta bhaktivinodena surabhi-kunja-vasina

iti sri-brahma-samhitaya bhagavat-siddhanta-sangrahe
mula-sutrakhya pancama adhyayera
'prakasini'-namni gaudiya-vrtti samapta

This Prakasini-vrtti Commentary-
the queller of the apprehension of Jiva,
the illuminator of the deep purport of Jiva,
was penned by Sri Bhaktivinoda
residing at Surabhi Kunja.

Thus concludes the Prakasini Gaudiya Illumination
of the Quintessence of Reality the Beautiful
Fifth Chapter, Sri Brahma-samhita

 

 

⇐ Illumination

Verse Contents ⇒

 

CONTENTS:

For Reader's Appreciation
Feelings of Appreciation
Prologue
Translator's Note
Illumination
Sri Sri Brahma-samhita
Verse Contents

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